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基本的な装訂の種類5 – 袋綴

基本的な装訂の種類5 – 袋綴
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Next, I will explain the fukurotoji or “pouch” binding method. Just as with the detchōsō and tetsuyōsō methods, the leaves are folded in half before binding them, but the positioning of the fold is different. In fukurotoji books the fold comes on the outer side of the book and it is the loose side of the pages that gets bound, so the paper, as you can see, looks a bit like a pipe or tube, which means that only one side of the leaf, the front side, is used. Because there is no need for thick paper that can be used on both sides, most books were made using the thinner kōzo (choshi) paper.
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First, the leaves are folded, then they are stacked up and fastened with simple paper strings called koyori. If the book was intended for study or home use, the title would often be written directly here and the book would be left without a cover. Such books still belong to the fukurotoji category, but as they are only partially bound, they are known as <li>karitoji</i>bon (half or partially-bound books). There are two ways to make a <li>karitoji</i>. The most common is to punch two holes through the stacked leaves, pass the strips through each of them, and then fasten them as in this example here.
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In this example here, I think you can these three small circles here, you pass the strips through each hole, leave a bit more than the thickness of the book, then you work the part that sticks out with your fingers, and finally you flatten it in with a wooden mallet until it resembles the head of a metal nail. You repeat the process on both sides. This is called shiteisō (“paper-nail” binding). It was particularly common in fukurotoji books dating from pre-Muromachi, pre-16th century times. Sometimes the binding was removed when the book was disbound for repairs, but generally speaking the shiteisō tends to be used in older books so it merits special attention.
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The problem is that when the book has a cover, as in this case, it is not so easy to tell whether it was bound using the <li>karitoji</i> or shiteisō method. So what you do is run two fingers here along the thread and feel the part that bulges out to see if it is round or long and narrow, and from that you can sometimes tell how it was bound. Edo-period printed books―the item you see is a printed book― were usually bound using the fukurotoji method. Because of it popularity, a huge number of them was produced, so much so that when people today think of traditional Japanese books the image they tend to picture is that of a fukurotoji book.
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That’s just how popular the method was. It is not easy to say when the method first started to be used, but if we look at very early examples, they tend to have writing on both sides of the paper. We noted earlier that fukurotoji books only have text on one side. Because paper was so valuable in early times, it was not discarded after one use but was kept to be reused. For instance, people might keep the letters they received, turn them over, and use the available side to make a fukurotoji to make a personal copy of a book. In this book, the thread has now come off, but originally it was bound as a fukurotoji.
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This book is in fact a rather interesting case. It has writing on the reverse, and that writing is a Buddhist sutra. Originally a scroll, it was cut into segments, which were then turned over and used to make a fukurotoji book. It is an extremely rare example. Sometimes fukurotoji books can have such rare histories, so it is important to be aware of it. Next, perhaps it is not entirely accurate to discuss these alongside fukurotoji books, but their appearance, the fact that they are bound with thread, they look like fukurotoji books. But as you turn the pages you realize that there is a fold at the bottom of every page, as in the origami tetsuyōsō.
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They have the crease here at the bottom, were cut along this side, bound using the <li>karitoji</i> method, and then the cover was added. Such books are called nagachōtoji (“wide” binding). You occasionally come across handwritten books bound using this type of binding, but printed books in this format, including the one I am looking at now, tend to be by the Kyoto bookseller Hachimonjiya. That’s it for pouch binding.

このステップでは、袋綴(ふくろとじ)について学んでいきます。以下のテキストを読んだ後、佐々木教授のお話をビデオでご覧ください。

5. 袋綴(ふくろとじ)

*Fukurotoji* (“bound-pocket” or “pouch” binding) 図1. 袋綴(単位:冊)

数的には圧倒的多数を占めるのが袋綴です。中国や朝鮮半島の版本で用いられたもので、中国では「線装(せんそう)」と呼ばれています。紙を縦に山折りして重ね、折り目の反対側で紙縒(こより)などを用いて仮綴じし、表紙を付けて糸で綴じる装訂法です。

Itsukushima mōde-ki 図2. 平家物語
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片面だけの書写・印刷となるので、薄い紙を用いるのが普通です。古い時代のものは手紙など一度用いた紙の裏側を利用して作られたものが目立ちます。

Chōrokubumi 図3. 長六文
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13世紀には存在していますが、綴葉装より簡便な方法として、室町時代の15世紀くらいから広く用いられる様になり、江戸時代の17世紀に商業出版が確立すると、大量に作られるようになって、写本においても普通に用いられるようになりました。猶、表紙を付さない状態のものを仮綴(本)(かりとじ(ぼん))と言います。

2 books 左:図4. 六韜
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右:図5. 僻案抄
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また、下辺に折り目がくるように重ねて右辺を綴じたものを長帳綴(ながちょうとじ)と呼びます。

Keisei kintanki 図6. 傾城禁短気
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これはやや特殊なもので、袋綴の数え方の単位は「冊」です。冊は粘葉装や綴葉装にも用いる人もいますが、一番ありふれた袋綴と区別できるように、「帖」を用いるのが望ましいと思います。

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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 和本の世界

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