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Metabolic Syndrome & Fish Oil

Fatty acid in foods
Dietary fatty acids are subclassified as omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, indicating the location of the carbon involved in the first double bond from the omega end of their carbon chains. Fish is a rich source of omega-3 Fatty acid which are EPA and DHA. They belong to non essential fatty acids but in essential fatty acids, α linolenic acid belong to omega-3 Fatty acid as well. These are The food sources of Omega 3 We can intake nuts and seeds, walnuts, flax seed to get α linolenic acid. From the animal source we can get EPA/DHA form deep sea Fish For example, salmon, sardines, and so on. In the lipid metabolism, fatty aicd is a substrate for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes.
Arachidonic acid which is omega-6 fatty acid is a substrate for COX and LOX that produce 2-series PG and 4-series LT. They are High pro-inflammatory mediators. EPA is also a substrate for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes that produce eicosanoids, but the mediators produced have a different structure from the arachidonic acid-derived mediators. The mediators drive form EPA is 3-series PG and 5-series LT. They are low pro-inflammatory potential. E-series resolvins and D-series resolvins and protectins are anti-inflammatory . The role of resolvins and related compounds may be very important because resolution of inflammation is important in shutting off the ongoing inflammatory process and in limiting tissue damage.
So if our diet can include more omega 3 fatty acid food sources, may be one of the methods to control inflammation Many subsequent studies have shown the benefits of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acid in cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, mellitus, metabolic syndrome, vascular reactivity, obesity, inflammatory diseases, neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders, renal disease, osteoporosis, eye diseases and with greater focus on chronic disease prevention. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in human health has become an area of interest for clinicians. This review is an attempt to outline their biological roles in relation to human health and disease. What is the proper omega-6/omega-3 ratio in our diet?
A typical western diet has a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio proximately 20:1 to 50:1 Although there is much debate about the appropriate ratio of omega-6 fatty acid to omega-3 fatty acid in the diet for optimizing the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on health, current evidence showed a lower ratio and an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of all populations.
Decreasing the dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio to 3:1-5:1 showed beneficial effects on the lipid profiles of healthy participants This table show Dietary recommendations for omega-3 fatty acid by various scientific bodies. There are lots of professional bodies suggest the different dosage of omega 3 fatty acid At first we can see UK suggests minimum of two portions of fish per week one must be oily fish that is equivalent to 450 mg EPA+DHA WHO, they suggests up to two fish meals per week that approximately equal to 400 to 1000 mg EPA+DHA. And US they suggest you can take 1.4 g α-linolenic acid/day. That equals to 140 mg EPA+DHA.
And American Heart Association, they suggest every day maybe you should take around 1g/day omega-3 fatty acid for secondary prevention of CHD So people not only can have omega-3 fatty acid from supplement but also from natural food.

Fatty acid contains the most calories in foods. In general, it divided into 2 major groups: saturated or unsaturated fatty acid. From many dietary recommendations, unsaturated fatty acid are considered to be “Good” oil.

In this video, Prof. Yeh will introduce the unsaturated fatty acid, especially the fish oil. Below is a reading essay, “Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition Report of an expert consultation” from WHO. It tells the role of fatty acids in neonatal and infant growth and development, health maintenance, the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers and age-related functional decline.

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Nutrition and Disease Prevention

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