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Further reading

This step provides three useful resources for understanding online abuse in sport.
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This step provides two useful resources for understanding online abuse in sport.

This is a peer-reviewed academic paper that evaluates all of the research that has been done on online hate and sport. This is an important source as you can identify research that considers different types of hate speech, the different sports, targets and perpetrators that are involved.

Furthermore, it goes into more detail on some of the key themes we have discussed in this part of the module (e.g. characteristics of sport, key triggers for online hate). It also introduces discussion on approaches to tackle online hate. We will start to consider them more in the next two sessions.

This is a glossary containing the different types of online abuse. This is a useful document to understand the number of different types of online abuse that exist, how they are defined and how they might occur within a sporting context.

This is an industry-wide barometer measuring online abuse in sport: Barometer Report 2024 – United Against Online Abuse

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Online Abuse in Sport

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