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Make an effective literature review and research method design

Make an effective literature review and research method design
Welcome back everyone. Starting from this section, we would like to demonstrate how to write a quantitative research.
The first case we would like to use is a study related to the cruise tourism, The title of the paper is Comparing motivations and intentions of potential cruise passengers
from different demographic groups: The case of China. Here is the outline of this paper. We start with the introduction followed by the literature review, methodology, findings and discussion and last the conclusions and implications.
In this figure, we can have a understanding about the trend of the cruise industry worldwide. From 1980 to 2011. We see the number of passengers of cruise travel worldwide is keep increasing.
From this picture, we can have a look of the global cruise capacity deployment. And this report is from CLIA, and from this data, we can have a look. Caribbean market is dominating the cruise market worldwide. And if we compared figures here, Asia is really occupying 3.4% of the overall cruise market. However, if we look at increasing rate, Asian increasing rate is three hundred percent, which means this market is small, but actually it’s really promising. Now let’s focus on China. The cruise lines in China, China’s cruise market is small but hopeful. The world’s famous cruise companies view Asia, especially China, as an essential market. Cruise line products in China they are still dominated by the overseas cruise.
Now, let’s move to literature review. In this part, we mainly review the literature in motivation and intention. First about motivation. Motivation is one of the well established concept in tourism. Motivation is defined as a state of need or condition that propels an individual to take a certain action that elicits satisfaction. Motivation factors are psychological needs that play a significant role in causing a person to feel psychological disequilibrium. that may be corrected through a travel experience.
We have a lot of motivation theories, and here list some of them. For example, we have the Travel Career ledder & Travel Career Patterns proposed by Pearce & Lee. Also we have the escaping and seeking dimensions of the travel motivationand and also the psychological graphic model. We also have the push and pull models of the tourism motivation proposed by Crompton. We conducted a little comparison about the travel motivation cruise motivation across different markets. And here’s the result.
Among the full market, North America Taiwanese, Hong Kong and Mainland China. Those markets actually, they have different features of their motivation to cruise, for example, North America, people want to cruise because the following reasons. For example, self esteem and social recognition, escape/relaxation, also bonding. Regarding Taiwanese, they identify some push and pull factors. For example, lifelong learning, escape and relaxation, adventures, belonging, status seeking, also the national environment, safety, the sport, recreation, learning opportunities and etc. When we look at Hong Kong market. People want to cruise because of the escape from normal life, the social gathering, the beautiful environment and scenery. At last, we also have some pieces of work talking about the Mainland Chinese travel motivations.
For example,they are mainly actually from the culture history perspective. Regarding the push factors, they have the spiritual purification, moral enlightenment, relaxation and refreshment, escaping, social gathering, family happiness,and also culture discovery. Regarding the pull factors, they want to pursue the openness, freedom, beautiful scenery, culture attributes and entertainment.
And from those studies, we can understand different markets or different group of people. They may have different motivations to travel or to cruise, which means travel motivation is not a one size fit all attribute.
The next concept we would like to review is about intention. An individuals anticipated or planned future behavior. Intention represents individuals expectations about a particular behavior in a given setting and can be optimized as the likelihood to act. Quality and perceived value, price sensitivity, critical incidents, the perceived image of cruise travel, those can be factors to influence tourist intention to join the cruise travel.
Regarding the relationship between motivation and intention. There are some studies working on those kind of relationships. For example, Hung and Patrick examine the influence of cruising motivation on cruise intentions. The study found a positive relationship between the two variables. The study found a positive relationship between the two variables. Also, some studies also for supported the relationship between the two, in which the intention consist of motivational factors that make an influence on people’s behavior.
In that case, the objective, the current study, are to explore the motivation and intention of Mainland chinese residents on cruise travel, Assess the demography influence on motivations and attention , Examine the correlation between motivation and intention. Also, to derive some practical suggestions to cruise operators and travel agents.
Here are the significances of the study. Our study focused on the cruise market in China, which is still emerging. But the future, I think it’s really bright.
It examines the relationship between motivation and intentions in the China market. Also it identified opinions of the potential cruise travelers, there are more and more people have the intention or wants to cruise in the future. In that case, get opinions from those kind of people may really help the cruise operators or travel agents to design their own plan. Here is the methodology. This study mainly follow the quantitative research method. Regarding the questionnair design, the part one, we have the seven point Likert-type scale questions to match the motivation and cruise intention of those target people. Although we have those questionnairs, we still employ the focus group interview to purify and validate those items borrowed from other studies.
The questionnaires were translated by those expert who held expertise in both Chinese and also English, by using the back translation method. And before the formal of the final survey, we have a small pilot test and the twenty mainland chinese students were asked to finish our pilots study. And some revisions were made according to their suggestions. Sampling and data collection. Our target sample is the potential outbound cruise travelers in china. We collected our data in Shanghai and Beijing by the convenience sampling. Our target sample size is two hundred fifty. As a result, we collected two hundred and forty two, with the response rate is ninety six point eight percent.
To analyzed the data, we use the software of SPSS and with the following analysis techniques, for example, we have the factor analysis, One-Way ANNOVA, T test and also the regression.

In this week, Dr. Fan Daisy and Professor Qu Hailin, who is a new educator for our course, will share with you about the research design for a quantitative study, including how to use questionnaires, how to deisign an experiment and how to use a mixed method in quantitative research.

Prof.Qu Hailin is the Regents Professor and William E. Davis Distinguished Chair as well as the director of the Center for Hospitality and Tourism Research in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at Oklahoma State University. He has been teaching and conducting research in tourism and hospitality management for about 40 years. He has published over 125 refereed articles in a number of national and international top tier business, hospitality and tourism refereed journals.

Now let’s start with the first video of this week. By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of how to make an effective literature review and research method design from Dr. Fan Daisy.

By watching the video, can you clearly list the main points of literature review and research method?

Please feel free to leave a comment in the discussion area.

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Research Methods in Tourism Studies

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