Now we’re moving on to talk about established frameworks on social tourism. As I mentioned previously, social tourism initiatives require some sort of facilitation, in other words, to enable access for everybody in society to be able to afford a holiday and to take a holiday. People need some help and need some facilitation, This well defined social intervention that distinguishes social tourism from other forms of tourism. So governments and other types of agencies are involved in providing access opportunities to tourism for those types of groups. So first of all, we can see that there are some specific models that try to explain social tourism.
This one here is created by Lynn Minnaert, Robert Maitland and Grey Miller in 2011 in a paper where they try to categorize the different models of social tourism available. So first of all, there are different types of groups that are related to here in this model of social tourism. So here we have the tourist or the type of tourist, and on this access, the products that we try to use or develop to provide access to tourists. So, in this quadrant here, we have social tourism users only. And a standard product This means that we take the traditional types of products that are available in a market. Whatever market that is and we target social tourism users only.
So this is the participation model of social tourism. We take the standard product that is available in the tourism industry and target social tourism users only And this is the participation model. A good example of this is the Flanders model in Belgium. And what happens here is that in the low season, there is a plenty of capacity in the tourism industry， because there are not so many people who are wanting to go on holiday during the low season. What the tourism industry does in flanders is that it provides access to these. There are some standard models of social tourism. This model by Maitland, Minnaert and Miller from 2011 shows that there are four different types of models of social tourism.
First of all, we take products that are made available to tourists, The tourist product, if you like. And then, these are the tourists, the social tourism and users. So in this quadrant here, we have the participation model. This takes standard products that are available in the industry and makes them available to only to social tourism users. So this is standard products. What are we talking about? We’re talking about hotel bed spaces or entry tickets to attractions and things like that. And what we do in the low season in the tourism industry there is plenty of availability, because there’s not so much demand.
So the tourism industry can release that capacity at a lower rate, and they can be packaged up and made available only to social tourism users. So that’s the participation model of social tourism. And then there’s the Inclusion model of social tourism. This takes the standard products, the types of products that everybody uses, accommodation, entry into attractions and travel opportunities and so on. And social tourism as well as other users are able to access these types of products. A good example of this is ANCV in France, which is the Agence Nationale de Cheques Vacance This allows everybody in society to have some vouchers to be able use them in standard tourism, accommodation and so on.
And then, we have a specific provisions provided only to social tourism users. In the adaptation model. This means that we have to create specific products or specifically required by social tourism users only. So for example, some people with severe mobility impairment sent on are unable to access all of the different aspects of the tourism system, so we have to create specific provisions just for those users. So people who have got a severe type of disability, have to have certain types of requirements. So we have to create those for them in the destination. And finally, the stimulation model is to make specific provisions for social tourism users and other users as well. So this is maybe an incentive type of scheme.
So we give discounts to certain groups in society that allow them to participate alongside other users in the same type of system. And there are four different types of main target groups for social tourism initiatives. So we use social tourism interventions for these main specific groups. So people living with disabilities, families on low incomes, the elderly and children And in different countries, there is an emphasis on different user groups or target groups. So in some countries, there are lots and lots of provisions for people, living with disabilities to be able to access tourism. And other countries, like in the UK, there are some national charities that are specifically there to help families with on low income.
And in Spain, for example, a main target group is the elderly through the MSIR. In other countries, children are the main focus, such as in Poland, where there are lots of schemes to help children access at the countryside and holiday opportunities. And when we look at the different structure of social tourism supply, particularly in the European context, the EU contracts, we can see that there is some commonalities across all of these different types of provisions. So we have the demand side, youth, families, seniors and people with disabilities. And then we have on the supply side transportation, accommodation, visitor attractions and destination services. So all of those different components are the supply of tourism opportunities.
But actually, then we have funding structures here, so we have to have social interventions. And that’s often requiring some sort of funding. And the mediators of these funding structures are here in the middle information and support services, state agencies, charities, workers unions, health insurance agencies, faith organizations, and social organizations are the main types of mediators. So in other words, they mediate between the supply and the demand. So they receive the funding from the government or from charitable organizations. And then, they are in contact with the tourists themselves and with the supply side structures. So we can see that there are some common frameworks that try to explain social tourism in different contexts.