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營養的需要-管灌食

video

本影片將介紹管灌食的種類與照顧技巧。

由口進食是最自然方便且最好的方式,但當個案罹患厭食症、憂鬱症,或口腔剛接受手術而產生嚴重噁心感、嘔吐,甚至意識不清楚,這時就不適合由口進食,在醫療上可能會改為管灌食-直接將食物灌入胃部、十二指腸或空腸(小腸)的方式,讓病人獲得營養。

管灌食的種類可分為鼻胃管灌食、鼻十二指腸灌食、鼻空腸管灌食、食道造廔管灌食、胃造廔管灌食、空腸造廔管灌食。

幫個案進行管灌食時,剛插入管子後,不可以立即灌食,至少要休息15-20分鐘,以避免管子插入引發的嘔吐不適;灌食時,個案應採坐姿,或至少要抬高床頭30度,且要維持此姿勢直到灌食後30分鐘。 每次灌食量約為250~300c.c.,灌食速度不宜太快,且灌食空針不可以拿太高,應讓食物緩緩的流動胃部,也應盡量避免將空氣灌入管內或適時將管子反折,切勿讓空氣進入。 如果個案出現腹脹、腹瀉、腹痛、便秘、嘔吐或持續咳嗽等現象,應該立即就醫。

進行鼻胃管個案照顧時,應每天進行鼻胃管的護理:保持鼻腔的清潔;檢視鼻腔周圍的皮膚完成性;固定紙膠,如果有鬆脫或弄髒,應隨時更換;每日進行口腔護理,以保持口腔粘膜的濕潤,避免乾燥同時促進舒適。

影片由老師進行詳細護理示範,請各位學員多加反覆觀看、練習。

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居家照顧與技巧: Part 1

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