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Concepts of Host Susceptibility


The risk factors increase susceptibility to periodontal disease, including smoking, diabetes, nutritional factors, and stress. Immune cells from patients with periodontal disease secrete higher quantities of proinflammatory cytokines than those who are periodontally healthy. Cytokine profiles are also different in those individuals with immune-mediated diseases as compared with healthy controls.

A similar dose-response curve can also be expressed in the context of stable or progressing disease, and, a certain level of bacterial challenge results in a moderate release of inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and enzymes.

In changes, then the secretion of cytokines, prostanoids, MMPs, and other mediators may increase in the tissues.

Diseases processes in periodontitis have led to the development of the model of a biological system for representing periodontal pathogenesis.

Person level

  • Biofilm characteristics
  • Environmental factors: smoking, Diabetes, Obesity

Genetic/ Epigenetic level

  • Gene polymorphisms
  • Epigenetic modifications
  • Age
  • Sex

Biological Phenotype

  • Host immune-inflammatory response
  • Cellular and molecular changes
  • Inflammatory biomarkers
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