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Participants in Tourism Planning

By the end of this video, you will know the history of tourism planning and the main contributors in this area.
In last class, we talked something about the history of tourism planning in the world and in China. I think the history story is, you know, very enjoyable to listen, but this class I will tell you something that is quite difficult. But don’t care about that. You know when we want to make a tourism planning, we need help from many different disciplines, including many, you know, scientists or social scientists to come in. So I think we need tourism system understanding for academic support in tourism planning. At least, we need help from geography, from history, from psychology, from environment studies or ecology and even from archeology, you know, quite different disciplines to come to help us.
Why we need so many people to come together to make a tourism planning? Because what are the major core things for planning or for destination?
Remember: product. What is tourism product? It consists of at least three things, attraction, facility and service. So, we only talk about attraction. Attraction means many things, Attraction comes from natural resources, from historical things, from anthropological things, so many things. So we need many people come to help us. Why geography is very important for tourism planning? You know, Geography talks something about space, about relationship between people and nature, the relationship between people and environment. So tourism planning wants to make or put everything together to attract people from other country to a new country. So, people move in the space. So, geographer is very important to support us.
For history or archeology or heritage studies, they could come here to help tourism planner to understand better about the Great Wall, the Pyramids in Egypt or the old building in Italy. So, history or archeology is quite important, but also we will need some economics or public management or business administration researchers to help us, because tourism is a business. People want to earn money from hotel, from cruise, and from attraction. So we need to do some accounting. Psychology, what it could do for tourism planning, do you know? Who will support our industry? Tourist. Different kinds of tourists have different preferences. Ladies like shopping more than gentlemen. Why?
Kids like to do something, you know they don’t like to go to museum without the kid’s interpretation way. So, they like to play with education together. So, behavior or consumer behavior research needs help from psychology. Ecology? What does it do for tourism planning? Many people like to go to the nature, go to natural resorts. And why birds come back in different seasons And why crocodile only appears in some specific areas? So, ecological understanding. We have some special tourists called eco-tourists that means hiking or tracking Or we called them in Chinese “Lv you” that means something like “donkey friends” , it means very close to the ecologic system. Sociology and anthropology, what could they do for us?
They could help us to understand tourism better, to, you know, make local people more involved and to take part in decision making. And they also help more people come to a very remote area. The local culture may be very, quite fragile, we want anthropologist to help us to make more authenticity things to be preserved or to have a long time to demonstrate to the world. We don’t like when people from other places come here and then local culture disappear. It’s a mistake. So we want many people to come together to help us.
In the history of tourism planning research, people find that many theories are quite different, for example, the tourism function system model from Clare Gunn, I mentioned him last time that he is quite important in tourism planning. He has a model called demand and supply diagram, especially the supply side including attraction, promotion, transportation, information and service. All the things put together make the destination attractable with accessibility to visitors from other places. So, this is a function system that means making it function, making it be used, to be operated. So this is the very important system model by Gunn.
And also we have a tourist area lifecycle raised by Butler in 1980 when I came to my first year of undergraduate in university. This theory tells people, and we have a figure in the PPT you could that we have different stages of tourism destination development from the exploration stage, to development, to maturation or reach the revolution or decline. So this cycle or life cycle, many destinations or attractions have experienced different stages in this diagram. But different kinds of attractions maybe have different demonstration of this model, because, you know, for the Great Wall or the Pyramids in Egypt maybe this life cycle is very very long. You cannot image that the Great Wall has no people to come.
But for some theme parks, the experience has more challenges for a short lifecycle, more investment, more creation needed to put in. This forms kind of its attraction. Life cycle is quite different for different attractions. The third model I’d like to mention here is from Baud Bovy. He raised this diagram to tell people about what the product or leisure product is. I think leisure product means both for recreation and tourist. So this model tells people in a very complicated process. I don’t like to spend more time. You could check a book from here. The forth one is that a theory coming from Murphy. He is a person very famous in the world that concern more on local community.
He emphasized that when people or the government or the investor make tourism planning, they should listen to the local people, and demonstrate as possible as you could to dig very deep for the local cultural or the authentic things to display. You know, some social science experts don’t like stage performance, but for tourism maybe stage performance is quite important or it’s necessary to make the system operated. So, Murphy’s theory you should remember one point that is to listen, to look, to share the benefit from tourism with local people. So his theory is quite important today, as you know people want more freedom or equality something like that. The last but not least is by myself, Professor Wu Bihu.
My model named RMP model that means resource, market and product. Put the three things together. So, RMP model means when we do any tourism planning or any recommendation to your client, you should do two things before you make any recommendation that is R analysis and M analysis. Resource analysis means a lot of job that you want to go for onsite survey or in the laboratory you want to make many calculation or assessment after onsite inventory. So this is the resource research. The second research or analysis is market. Where is the target market located?
And even we know Japanese or Korean, South Korean market is there to attract Chinese tourists, but there are too many different aspects to know deeply, Which part of the Japanese market is the most important market to Chinese attraction. And for Shanghai and for Xi’an or for Guilin, Japanese market means different market because the three destination cities are quite different in their products So, all the recommendations in our planning report submitted to our client, the most important thing is product. The product’s definition or the framework of the product goes to the research of the resource and market. So, product itself also could be assessed from different aspects. So, this is the RMP model.
So, in this class we talk the possibility of the tourism academic things and involvement from different aspect of disciplines and also some important theories or models for tourism planning. Thank you.

By the end of this video, you will know the history of tourism planning and the main contributors in this area.

Do you know any theories in the field of tourism planning? Can you list a few?

We would like to invite you to share some thoughts in the comments section below.

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Tourism Policy and Planning

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