So far, in reviewing the lectures on the tourism development planning process. We’ve looked at the process, we’ve discussed the approach to destination product and product development and the experience related to that. And then look more specifically at one part of the product, a component which was developing events and experiences. What I’d like to now do is to assess and discuss evaluating destination plans. In all of the earlier example, I’ve made the point that there needs to be an implementation process that includes a monitoring and evaluation framework in order to be able to determine the outcome of the plan. And so this will be the particular lecture will work with that in more detail.
First, I will review the key terms that I will use, give you my understanding of them. Then, I’ll talk about what is referred to as a results monitoring framework. I’ll talk about indicators and then provide some reading. In terms of other key terms the first one is phrase results framework which is basically is a planning and communication and management tool. It is an explicit articulation or graphic display, a matrix or a summary of the different levels or cause effect chains of results expected from a particular intervention project program. In planning working backwards from strategic objectives. A result frame offers a systematic approach for practitioners to plan their strategies and to select interventions that are most likely to address targeted problems.
So, that’s saying is that at the very early stage when you’re looking at the impacts on the specific objectives of the planning, you should already be thinking about results framework. And in fact you should already prepare a results framework to guide define tuning of the planning process and outcomes. A result framework helps articulate a project or programs theory of change. Now, what about is basically the causal pathways from the plan interventions to the intended outcome and impact. The theory of change basically is the assumptions underlying how the plan will change from the current situation. What is now to a desired future situation in the desired scenario.
So, a clear understanding of the theory of change is very important and it’s a very key concept. Indicators of course are specific measurable achievable, relevant and time bound variables which are critical in measuring the extent to which the change has occurred from a baseline position now to sometime in the future. So indicators have two components that have to be clearly measurable. And you need to be able to measure them now and you need to be able to measure them in the future.
Now, why is it important to measure implementation performance? Well, it’s difficult to know, if a a plan or a program has succeeded or failed. If the expected results are not clearly articulated, in fact, if it’s not measured , there is a high probability that it probably won’t get done . So, a plan or program without a result framework is not likely to be very successful. Planning formulation and execution occurs in a highly uncertain environment necessitating regular adjustments to the plan to maintain focus on the impact on the outcomes.
Thus, the first maxim of good destination planning is having a clearly defined results monitoring framework that keeps measurable objectives in sight, helps to monitor progress towards this objective, and assists with adjustment and management of program implementation. So, these are some of the critical reasons for ensuring that you have a result a framework in place.
The results and monitoring framework is a matrix which shows the plans contribution to the desired goal impact, in the very first lecture I mentioned that the impact in a sense is greater than the plan itself . It might be poverty reduction, it might be stimulating economic growth, it may be a small enterprise, stimulation and development. But whatever the impact is, it’s larger than tourism itself. Tourism will not able to deliver all the poverty reduction but it certainly can make a contribution. And that is the important thing. What is the level of that contribution And so, what is the results chain in terms of outcomes and outputs and activities that will deliver a certain contribution towards a larger goal or impact.
The activities and the milestones by when the outputs and outcomes will be achieved are critical to the results chain and to the delivery of the overall impact. Of course, the results in monitoring framework also has to identify the financial human and physical resources required to deliver the outcomes outputs on the outcomes of the plan. And normally that is often left to a part of the report planning report which is right at the back and usually not referred to in implementation and near one of the crucial. So, the results framework brings all of these factors together into one matrix. So that the implement as can work with that, especially, in the monitoring and evaluation aspects of the implementation.
Now, I’m giving here an example of a results, an indicator framework for a project for a municipality in this case. In the Cebu in the Philippines which shows how the matrix might look. This is a very summarized version, I have something a little bit more detail to show you shortly, but you can see the results chain, but exciting at the impact you can see that, for example, impact will specify the national or regional impact that they plans are aligned for. In this case, aligned with improve sustainability and inclusiveness of the tourism sector is set out in the Philippine national tourism development plan. The results chain is the outcomes.
So what are the outcomes that the plan will deliver towards that impact And so that’s the first level. And you can see there that you have the first outcome would be, for example, it would state what the plan will deliver to support the overall impact. And then in the next column you have the performance indicators which are specific and measurable baseline and target. And then next to that the data source and the reporting. What are the sources of the data? And of course, the what are the risks of not being able to achieve that particular outcome? So, what are the risks associated with the outcome? And the same will apply to the outputs in the table that I’m showing here.
I’m only showing one output but they could be three or four or more. And for each of those there would be a set of performance indicators , data sources and the statement of the risks associated with that. And finally, the key activities and milestones would be presented, so that you understand how each of the outputs will be delivered over what time frame. And then finally what inputs are required in order to deliver that in terms of resources both human financial and physical at the different levels. So, it may be a national government made provincial government or local government level.
Now,I mentioned again to illustrate the importance of indicators. This is a project that I was recently associated with in Mongolia, which looked at the impact of certain interventions. In terms of the improving sustainability of tourism into national parks as models for sustainable development of the national park system. And so you can see here that the impact is that the project is aligned with improved sustainability of the tourism sector in the national protected area system, which is the government of Mongolia as broad goal and vision for thirty. And then you can see that detailed level at which the results chain is developed .
So, for example, the performance indicators are quite detailed and there are several data sources and the risks I clearly identified. And this is at a smaller scale than a national or provincial plan or even the municipality plan because this is at an area planning level. And finally, some readings to further develop your understanding of the concept of the results framework of monitoring and evaluation in implementation . Thank you very much.