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Types of FGM

Types of FGM
Hands holding bloody rose

The World Health Organisation has classified FGM into four different types

Type I – Clitoridectomy

Partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and/or the prepuce (the clitoral hood or fold of skin surrounding the clitoris).

Type II – Excision

Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the inner labia, with or without excision of the outer labia (the labia are the ‘lips’ that surround the vagina).

Type III – Infibulation

Narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner or outer labia, with or without removal of the clitoris.

Type IV – Other

All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes. Examples include pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterising (burning) the genital area.

Types of FGM - 1 to 4

The Desert Flower Foundation has a number of excellent infographics depicting the types, instruments used and prevalence of types of FGM. Read this link.

It is also important to note that there are subtypes of each of the 4 types of FGM.

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Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Health, Law, and Socio-Cultural Sensitivity

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