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Smelting applied to Pb and Cu

Molten Pb (lead) and Cu (copper) are probably the two most important liquids in pyrometallurgy of recycling because they allow to recover many precious elements.

Typical e-waste recycling processes by pyrometallurgy

Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes are commonly used to extract base metals and precious metals. The use of microorganisms and their metabolites through bio-hydrometallurgical processing, or bioleaching, has also been investigated …

Different types of metal precipitation

This article presents the principle of metallic precipitation and conditions under which precipitation can occur: oversaturation, addition of reagents to form an insoluble salt, addition of reagents to form an …

Challenges in mechanical recycling of batteries

A series of mechanical processes are carried out during the Crushing and Sorting stages of Li-ion battery recycling. They involve crushing, sieving, magnetic separation, fine crushing, and classification. Multistage crushing …

Hydrometallurgical processing of Li-ion batteries

Hydrometallurgical processing of Li-ion batteries is based on the leaching of active material (cathode and anodes – black mass) with preferable mineral acids, followed by metal separation using solvent extraction, …