Skip main navigation

European multiple modernities and/as the Other

In this video, Professor Janny de Jong re-examines the construction of Europe through modernity from the perspective of ‘the Other’. In Week 3, Modernity was situated in time by referring …

Maps of Europe

In this step, we have gathered a number of maps of ‘Europe’. The video above shows when countries first joined the Eurovision Song Contest. Below are some maps of Europe …

Looking back – and forward

In this video, Dr Senka Neuman-Stanivukovic summarises what had been discussed in earlier weeks and looks ahead to this week. We’ve made quite the journey together in the past weeks. …

European democracy and/as the Other

In this video, Dr Senka Neuman-Stanivukovic explains how processes of othering influence the EU’s foreign policy. In this lecture, we invite you to recall our discussion in Week 5 about …

Summary and preview

Dr Senka Neuman-Stanivukovic summarises this week’s discussions on democracy in Europe. We’ve seen which problems democracy in Europe faces, including the EU’s democratic deficit and illiberal tendencies. Next week, the …

Further reading

We close every week with some recommendations for further reading we think you might enjoy. Feel free to share your own links to articles, videos and other media that might …

Overview of the week

Welcome to the sixth and final week of the course! In this week, we will look at how Europe is constructed in opposition to other countries, spaces and ideas. We …

What is illiberal democracy?

In this video, Professor Mach explains the meaning of illiberal democracy. ‘Suppose the election was declared free and fair and those elected are racists, fascists, separatists, who are publicly opposed …

Illiberal democracy and European integration

In 1992, the American International Relations (IR) scholar Francis Fukuyama argued that the end of the Cold War marked a victory for liberal democracy. He argued that with the collapse …

Is another Europe possible?

In this article, we present the idea of an open-source city as an alternative for Europe. If we accept the argument that the nation-state is no longer able to provide …

The European democratic deficit debate

In this video, Professor Zdzislaw Mach explains why the European institutions have often been criticised for suffering from a democratic deficit. Among many criticisms that are formulated in relation to …

Alternatives for democracy in Europe

In this video, Dr Senka Neuman-Stanivukovic explains deliberative and radical democracy as alternative forms of governance in a postnational Europe. Proponents of deliberative democracy suggest that political participation should be …

EU integration and democracy

In this video, Professor Zdzisław Mach explains the link between identity, democracy and European integration. In our previous activity, we have discussed problems of democratic representation in a cultural and …

Rethinking democracy beyond the nation-state

Democratic governance of nation-states is challenged by various processes associated with Europeanisation and globalisation. Geminello Preterossi suggests that elements that before legitimised the political restructuring of the European nation-state and …