Skip main navigation

Hurry, only 9 days left to get one year of Unlimited learning for £249.99 £174.99. New subscribers only. T&Cs apply

Find out more

Idx Header Bg

Which cities are best managing the post-COVID economy?

Live data feed shows the latest unemployment data and the pandemic’s impact on the economy.

Here at FutureLearn, we’re passionate about helping people achieve their professional goals – so we closely follow the jobs market and which cities are most attractive to top professional talent. When we began researching the best cities for jobs earlier this year, we found that it was a challenge to find up to date information about each economy. COVID-19 impacted unemployment rates and the financial health of cities at an unprecedented rate, so reported figures changed dramatically week to week.

As a result, we’ve updated our study that originally benchmarked 100 global cities to include a live feed with data on the economic impact of COVID in each city. The Latest Reported Unemployment Rate and COVID-19 Estimated Impact on Economy will be updated on a weekly basis. This study is here to offer transparency on the true economic impact of the coronavirus, and also to offer hope and insight into the best cities for jobs in 2020 as people start to rebuilt their lives.

See More

Instructions for Journalists

Economics

Gdp Annual Growth Rate Png
GDP Annual Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Youth Opportunities Icon
Youth Opportunities*
Unemployment Score Icon
Unemployment Score
Covid 19 Estimated Impact On Economy Icon
COVID-19 Estimated Impact on Economy

Government Policies

Workers Rights Icon
Workers' Rights
Parental Leave Icon
Parental Leave
Government Effectiveness Icon
Government Effectiveness*
Immigration Rates And Openness Icon
Immigration Rates and Openness*

Quality of Life

Healthcare Spending Icon
Healthcare Spending*
Cost Of Living Icon
Cost of Living
Disposable Income Icon
Disposable Income*

Gender Equality

Gender Wage Gap Icon
Gender Wage Gap
Womens Legislation Freedoms Icon
Women's Rights & Equality
Womens Opportunity For Advancement Icon
Women in Leadership Roles
* = Pre-COVID-19

About the Data

(as of May 2020 for all points except Unemployment Score and COVID-19 Estimated Impact on Economy)

All data points in the columns in the table below are scored out of 100. Unless the figure represents a percentage or percentage point (see table key), the higher the score, the better the city for jobs. The default ranking for the table is the total score. Each individual column is filterable from highest to lowest.

Economics Government Policies Quality of Life Gender Equality
# Rank +/- City Country Total

Welcome Journalists

Clicking on the above link opens a chart creator that enables the post-Covid-19 economies of five cities to be compared on a graph.  You can export the chart and add it to your article or website.

City Country Latest Published Unemployment Rate(%) Period Source Region
Adelaide Australia 8.50 Jun-20 Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Adelaide
Brisbane Australia 7.70 Jun-20 Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Brisbane
Melbourne Australia 7.70 Jun-20 Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Melbourne
Perth Australia 8.50 Jun-20 Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Perth
Sydney Australia 6.70 Jun-20 Australian Bureau of Statistics Greater Sydney
Graz Austria 2.71 Q1 2020 Microcensus LFS Styria
Linz Austria 3.00 Q1 2020 Microcensus LFS Upper Austria
Vienna Austria 8.40 Q1 2020 Microcensus LFS Vienna
Antwerp Belgium 2.90 Jun-20 Statistics Office Belgium Flanders
Brussels Belgium 12.90 Jun-20 Statistics Office Belgium Brussels Capital Region
Ghent Belgium 2.90 Jun-20 Statistics Office Belgium Flanders
Calgary Canada 15.50 Jul-20 Statistics Canada Calgary, Alberta
Ottawa Canada 9.20 Jul-20 Statistics Canada Ottawa-Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec
Toronto Canada 14.70 Jul-20 Statistics Canada Toronto, Ontario
Vancouver Canada 13.30 Jul-20 Statistics Canada Vancouver, British Columbia
Brno Czechia 4.72 Jun-20 Local Authorities Brno-Mesto
Prague Czechia 2.98 Jun-20 Local Authorities Praha
Copenhagen Denmark 6.50 Jun-20 Statistics Denmark Copenhagen
Tallinn Estonia 7.00 Q2 2020 Statistics Estonia Tallinn
Helsinki Finland 6.70 Jun-20 Labour Force Survey Helsinki
Bordeaux France 7.30 Q1 2020 Insee Gironde
Lille France 10.00 Q1 2020 Insee Nord
Nice France 8.20 Q1 2020 Insee Alpes-Maritimes
Berlin Germany 10.50 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Berlin
Dresden Germany 6.50 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Dresden, Stadt
Frankfurt Germany 7.20 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Frankfurt am Main, Stadt
Hamburg Germany 8.20 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Hamburg
Hanover Germany 7.90 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Region Hanover
Leipzig Germany 8.00 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Leipzig, Stadt
Stuttgart Germany 5.70 Jun-20 Arbeitsagentur Stuttgart, Landeshauptstadt
Athens Greece 14.30 Q1 2020 Hellenic Statistical Authority Attiki (NUTS2)
Hong Kong Hong Kong 6.20 Q2 2020 Censtad Hong Kong
Budapest Hungary 2.60 Q1 2020 Hungarian Central Statistical Office Budapest
Dublin Ireland 4.60 Q1 2020 Central Statistics Office Ireland
Milan Italy 4.80 Q1 2020 ISTAT Lombardia
Rome Italy 9.20 Q1 2020 ISTAT Lazio
Osaka Japan 3.10 Jun-20 Statistics Bureau of Japan Kinki
Tokyo Japan 3.30 Jun-20 Statistics Bureau of Japan Southern Kanto
Mexico City Mexico 4.80 Q2 2020 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) Ciudad de Mexico
Monterrey Mexico 3.80 Q2 2020 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) Nuevo Leon
Amsterdam Netherlands 3.80 Q2 2020 CBS Amsterdam
Eindhoven Netherlands 3.70 Q2 2020 CBS North Brabant
Rotterdam Netherlands 4.10 Q2 2020 CBS Rotterdam
Utrecht Netherlands 3.20 Q2 2020 CBS Utrecht
Oslo Norway 3.80 Apr-20 Statistik Sentralbyra Eastern Norway
Warsaw Poland 1.70 Jun-20 Statistics Poland City with powiat status Capital City Warszawa
Singapore Singapore 2.90 Q2 2020 Ministry of Manpower Singapore
Bratislava Slovakia 9.60 Jun-20 Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family Bratislava kraj
Ljubljana Slovenia 9.40 May-20 Employment Service of Slovenia Ljubljana
Seoul South Korea 5.30 Q2 2020 Korean Statistical Information Service Seoul
Barcelona Spain 12.78 Q2 2020 Instituto Nacional de Estatistica Catalonia
Madrid Spain 12.61 Q2 2020 Instituto Nacional de Estatistica Madrid
Stockholm Sweden 8.50 Q2 2020 Statistics Sweden Stockholm (0180)
Basel Switzerland 4.10 Jul-20 City of Zurich Kanton Basel-Stadt
Birmingham UK 4.40 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS West Midlands
Bristol UK 3.60 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS South West
Cardiff UK 2.70 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS Wales
Edinburgh UK 4.50 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS Scottland
Glasgow UK 4.50 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS Scottland
Leeds UK 3.80 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS Yorkshire and the Humber
Liverpool UK 3.50 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS North West
London UK 4.60 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS London
Manchester UK 3.50 Q2 2020 Office for National Statistics / LFS North West
Atlanta USA 8.60 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Boston USA 16.90 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Boston-Cambridge-Nashua, MA-NH Metropolitan NECTA
Chicago USA 15.60 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area
Cleveland USA 14.00 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area
Dallas USA 8.40 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area
Denver USA 11.00 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area
Detroit USA 17.80 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area
Houston USA 9.90 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area
Las Vegas USA 18.00 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV Metropolitan Statistical Area
Los Angeles USA 18.10 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Miami USA 11.30 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area
Minneapolis USA 9.20 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area
New York USA 17.00 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Philadelphia USA 14.00 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area
Pittsburgh USA 12.60 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Portland USA 11.40 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area
San Diego USA 13.90 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area
San Francisco USA 12.60 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Seattle USA 9.70 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Washington USA 8.40 Jun-20 Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area

Methodology

This study uses data and statistics to evaluate the best cities to find a job. Each city is analysed against 15 factors relating to economics, governmental policies, quality of life, and gender equality. To select the cities for the study, OECD nations were analyzed according to their available business infrastructure statistics, as well as those cities which are considered popular for economic, educational, or aspirations opportunities, in order to determine a final list of 100 cities. This study utilises metropolitan areas as defined by OECD.

The research for this study began in early 2020 before the COVID-19 pandemic, so every effort has been made in this study to offer data which is relevant both to the career prospects of a city in recent history, and how current international affairs may have impacted economic prospects for job seekers. 

The Unemployment Score and COVID-19 Estimated Impact on Economy will be updated on a weekly basis, allowing comparison of the impact of Covid-19 over time.

Scoring

Factors consist of one or more indicators which were scored and averaged. The equation for scores is as follows:

Calculation Img1

For columns where a low value is better, the score is inverted such that a high score is always better:

Calculation Img2

Scores are normalized such that 10 equals the lowest value in the final dataset and 100 the highest value in the final dataset. Therefore, the higher the score, the better the city ranks for that factor in comparison to the other cities in the index. For example, a score of ‘100’ for “COVID-19 Estimated Impact on economy” indicates that the city will presumably have to endure a low economic impact relative to the other cities in the ranking.

The equation for normalization is as follows:

Calculation Img3

All factors are expressed as scores out of 100, except for the following three factors:

  • GDP Annual Growth Rate 2013-2018 (%)
  • Latest Unemployment Rate (%)
  • Projected Change in Unemployment Rate 2019-2020 (Percentage Points)

When calculating the total score for each city, a weighted average is taken of all factor scores, where each factor score has been capped at the median of the factor–that is, scores lower than the median have been treated as if they are the same as the median score.

By capping the scores at the median, individual weaknesses are limited in their effect on the total score. This allows cities that excel in multiple areas to rise to the top of the rankings, while cities that excel in fewer areas rank towards the bottom of the ranking.

Purchase Power Parities (PPP)

In this study, all prices and costs are converted to Purchase Power Parities according to the exchange rate of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). According to the IMF, this is the rate at which the currency of one country would have to be converted into that of another country to buy the same amount of goods and services in each country. The PPP-exchange rate is more stable over time in comparison to a market exchange rate (eg. USD) and it takes into account local conditions (eg. local goods, services and wages).

Economics

Gdp Annual Growth Rate Png

GDP Annual Growth Rate 2013-2018 (in %)

GDP/Capita compound annual growth rate over the period 2013 – 2018.

Details

  • “OECD Metropolitan areas” database, dimensions:
    • Indicator: “GDP_PC: GDP per capita (US$)”, expressed in US$, constant prices and constant PPPs, OECD base year (2010).
  • As most values in this database are 2016 or 2015 estimates, data from the metropolitan areas was extrapolated to 2018 using GDP growth rates in OECD Regional Economy database. Dimensions: Indicator “GDP”, Measurement: “PC_REAL_PPP: USD per head, constant prices, constant PPP, base year 2010”

Formula Five-year compound annual growth rate:

(GDP per capita 2018/GDP per capita2013)(1/5)

Source:

Youth Opportunities Icon

Youth Opportunities

Youth employment rate and the number of startups.

Details

  • Combined score of the following indicators:
  • Youth Employment rate (15-24 years)
  • Number of startups
  • Number of startups per 1 million inhabitants

Source:

Unemployment Score Icon

Unemployment Score

This is a score based on the estimated unemployment rate for the corresponding month for the metropolitan area or region and IMF country-based estimates of the unemployment rate for 2020 and 2021. This column will be updated weekly from the sources below.

Details

  • Latest available data was collected primarily on a metropolitan level (e. g. Île-de-France instead of Paris 75). When data on a metropolitan level was unavailable, regional data was taken to represent the city (e.g. Flanders instead of Ghent, Belgium).
  • In order to ensure comparability between slightly different approaches of collecting unemployment data in each country, we used the harmonised OECD Metropolitan database unemployment rate of 2018 as a base. We added the year-over-year change for the corresponding month. If that particular number was not available, we estimated it by taking into account the global average as well as the previous rates.
  • Country-based estimates of the unemployment rate from the “World Economic Outlook Report” by the International Monetary Fund (IMF, released in April 2020) concerning 2020 and 2021.

Source:

  • OECD, IMF, Local offices of statistics, local authorities
Covid 19 Estimated Impact On Economy Icon

COVID-19 Estimated Impact on Economy

The score describes the impact that COVID-19 may have on the economy due to measures implemented, COVID-19-deaths as well as an IMF outlook on the economy. This column will be updated weekly from the sources below.

Details

  • The reasoning behind this score is the following: The best outcome for an economy would be a low number of COVID-19 measures, a low number of COVID-19 deaths and a positive outlook on GDP and unemployment numbers.
  • The data was collected on a country level.
  • It consists of the following indicators:
    1. Number of COVID-19 measures related to the economy for the corresponding month. The introduction of measures as well as the phase-out of measures was taken into account. The score for these measures was inverted so that a high score means a low number of measures:
      • Limit public gatherings
      • Border closure
      • Border closure
      • Schools closure
      • Limit product imports/exports
      • Border checks
      • International flights suspension
      • Domestic travel restrictions
      • Partial lockdown
      • Checkpoints within the country
      • Public services closure
      • Full lockdown
      • Visa restrictions
      • limit public gatherings
      • Complete border closure
      • Curfews.

      The number of measures refers to the latest available ACAPS dataset. For the United States, we added state based information on lockdown from local authorities.

    2. Total Number of accumulated COVID-19 related deaths for the corresponding month.
      All numbers related to COVID-19 are correct as of the latest update date.
    3. IMF Outlook on unemployment in 2020 relative to 2019. As the score reflects the projected change in unemployment from 2019 to 2020, countries that enjoyed low unemployment in 2019 may therefore score lower than countries that already struggled with high unemployment, assuming both countries arrive at the same unemployment rate in 2020.
    4. IMF Outlook on unemployment in 2021 relative to 2010. As the score reflects the projected change in unemployment from 2020 to 2021, countries that enjoyed low unemployment in 2020 may therefore score lower than countries that already struggled with high unemployment, assuming both countries arrive at the same unemployment rate in 2021.
    5. IMF Outlook on GDP per capita in 2020 relative to 2019. As the score reflects the projected change in GDP growth from 2019 to 2020, countries that enjoyed high GDP growth in 2019 may therefore score lower than countries that already struggled with low GDP growth rates, assuming both countries arrive at the same GDP growth rate in 2020.

Source:

  • ACAPS, Ourworldindata/European Centre for Disease Prevention, New York Times (US States), International Monetary Fund

Government Policies

Workers Rights Icon

Workers’ Rights

This score compares the legal situation for workers around the world.

Details

  • It consists of the following indicators:
    • World Justice Project “Rule of Law Index – 2020 Insights”: “Fundamental labor rights are effectively guaranteed”.
    • Oxfam “The best and worst states to work in in America 2018”: “Worker Protection”, “Right to Organize”. This is a ranking which only includes the US; it was taken into account to differentiate between the cities in the US.
    • International Trade Union Confederation “2019 The World’s Worst Countries for Workers”: Rating (5=”No guarantee of rights due to the breakdown of the law”, 1=”Sporadic violations of rights”).
    • The data is provided mainly on a country level; except for the Oxfam ranking which is on (US) state level.

Source:

  • WJP Fundamental labor rights
  • OXFAM Worker Protection Policies (only for USA)
  • ITUC Worst Countries for Workers
Parental Leave Icon

Parental Leave

The total number of days that are granted as paid maternity and parental leave.

Details

  • OECD “Family database”, dimensions:
    • Indicator: “Length of paid maternal and parental”, unit: “weeks”
    • Indicator: “Length of paid father-specific leave”, unit: “weeks”
    • Age group “Total”
    • Unit: “Weeks”
  • These two indicators were summed up and multiplied by 7 to obtain the total number of paid days granted for parents.
  • The data is provided on a country level and reflects the situation in 2016.

Source:

Government Effectiveness Icon

Government Effectiveness

The quality of public services and the civil service, and the government’s ability to formulate and implement policy.

Details

  • While the index is compiled by the World Bank, it is in turn an aggregate of multiple secondary indices, including the Economist Intelligence Unit Riskwire & Democracy Index, the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, Satisfaction with transportation according to the Gallup World Poll, the Institutional Profiles Database, the Political Risk Services International Country Risk Guide, and Global Insight Business Conditions and Risk Indicators. It reflects the situation in 2018.

Source:

Immigration Rates And Openness Icon

Immigrant Rates And Openness

The foreign-born population as a share of the total population as well as indicators from Nomadslist.

Details

  • OECD “Database on Migrants in OECD Regions”, dimensions:
    • Indicator: “ALL_T_SH: Share of Foreign-Born Population”
    • Place of birth: “Foreign-born”.
  • All observations from this database are for the year 2015
  • Indicators from Nomadslist:
    • English speaking: In order not to privilege English speaking countries in general, countries were only penalized, if they had a lower rating than “okay”.
    • Friendly to foreigners.
    • Racial tolerance.

Source:

Quality of Life

Healthcare Spending Icon

Healthcare Spending

Yearly household expenditure on health, as a percentage of disposable income.

Details

  • OECD “Final Consumption and financing” database, dimensions:
    • TRANSACT – Transaction: “P31CP060 – Health”;
    • Measure: “Current prices, millions”,
  • Data was converted to PPP per capita.
  • Disposable income is described in detail below. The data reflects the situation in 2018.

Source:

Cost Of Living Icon

Cost of Living

Indicators from Numbeo, Expatistan and Nomadslist. All indicators were converted into Purchase Power Parities. A higher score indicates a lower cost of living.

Details

For Cost of Living, we used the following indicators:

Numbeo:

  • Cost of living rank
  • A single person monthly costs without rent
  • Four-person family monthly costs without rent
  • Rent Per Month (Average of 1 bedroom, 3 bedrooms, in city centre and outside city centre)
  • Buy Apartment Price (Average of 1 bedroom, 3 bedrooms, in city centre, and outside city centre).

Expatistan:

  • Restaurants (average cost of basic lunchtime menu, combo meal in fast food restaurant, basic dinner out for two in neighborhood pub, dinner for two at an Italian restaurant in the expat area including appetisers, main course, wine and dessert)
  • Markets (average cost of chicken breast, milk, eggs, tomatoes, local cheese, apples, potatoes, domestic beer, red table wine, coca-cola, bread, for two people for one day)
  • Rent (average cost of monthly rent for big and small furnished apartments in expensive and normal areas, plus utilities for one month)
  • Transportation (average cost of gasoline, monthly ticket public and taxi trip on a business day)

Nomadslist:

  • Cost
Disposable Income Icon

Disposable Income

Per capita wages and other incomes (e.g. rental income and other investments) minus taxes and social contributions.

Details

  • OECD dimensions:
    • SNA Classification: “Last SNA classification (SNA 2008 or latest available)”
    • Indicator: “INCOME_DISP: Disposable Household Income”
    • Measure: “National currency per head, current prices”,
  • Data was converted to PPP.

Source:

Government Effectiveness Icon

Government Effectiveness

The quality of public services and the civil service, and the government’s ability to formulate and implement policy.

Details

While the index is compiled by the World Bank, it is in turn an aggregate of multiple secondary indices, including the Economist Intelligence Unit Riskwire & Democracy Index, the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, Satisfaction with transportation according to the Gallup World Poll, the Institutional Profiles Database, the Political Risk Services International Country Risk Guide, and Global Insight Business Conditions and Risk Indicators.

Source:

Gender Equality

Gender Wage Gap Icon

Gender Wage Gap

The difference in percentages between women’s average monthly wages compared to men’s average monthly wages.

Details

  • Female-to-male ratio (f/m) of indicator “Estimated earned income (PPP, US$)”.

Source:

Womens Legislation Freedoms Icon

Women's Legislation & Freedoms

A score of ratings of legislative restrictions on women’s rights as well as cultural norms and impediments.

Details

The OECD “Social Institutions & Gender Index” database evaluates social institutions in four main categories with the following:

 

  • Discrimination in the family: Child marriage, Household responsibilities, Divorce, Inheritance.
  • Restricted physical integrity: Violence against women, Female genital mutilation, Missing women, Reproductive autonomy.
  • Restricted access to productive and financial resources: secure access to land and non/land assets, Secure access to formal financial services, Workplace rights.
  • Restricted civil liberties: Citizenship rights, Political voice, Freedom of movement, Access to justice.

Source:

Womens Opportunity For Advancement Icon

Opportunities for Female Advancement

Response to the survey question: “In your country, to what extent do companies provide women the same opportunities as men to rise to positions of leadership?”

Details

Indicator “Advancement of women to leadership roles”. It refers to the results of the World Economic Forum “Executive Opinion Survey 2018-2019”, more precisely the question: “In your country, to what extent do companies provide women the same opportunities as men to rise to positions of leadership? (1 = not at all, women have no opportunities to rise to positions of leadership; 7 = extensive, women have equal opportunities of leadership)”.

Source:

Poll

An anonymous poll was conducted by Magmatic Research, and asked those currently experiencing lock-down in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and the USA questions about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives, including economic status. The poll was conducted via a web panel consisting of respondents representative of the gender and age demographic breakdown of each country and ran between 20 April and 5 May.

Details

  • The data from the following question was utilised to support the statement: ”on average 50% of respondents had either lost their job entirely, or had their earning capacity reduced in some manner since the start of the pandemic.”
  • “How has your employment status been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic? Check any that apply”:
  • My employment situation has not changed at all; I own a small business, which is still open for business; I own a small business, which has been temporarily closed; I owned a small business, which I have had to close permanently; I have entirely lost at least one of my main sources of income; I have entirely lost a source of side-income; I am working reduced hours, receiving NO financial support to compensate for lost income; I am working reduced hours, WITH government or insurance support making up for some of my lost hours; I have been asked by my employer to not work at all, temporarily; but receiving NO financial support to compensate for lost income; I have been asked by my employer to not work at all, temporarily; and WITH government or insurance support making up for some of my lost hours; I am working more now than before the pandemic, but NOT being compensated for the additional hours; I am working more now than before the pandemic, and being COMPENSATED for the additional hours.
  • If you would like to receive more details about the poll, kindly get in touch with info@magmaticresearch.com.