Tony Samson
Before I retired I taught bacterial and phage genetics etc. This field has progressed enormously thanks to advances in genome sequence analysis. My research field was animal virology.
Location Newcastle upon Tyne UK
Activity

Tony Samson made a comment
An extremely well designed and thorough in depth explanation and discussion of the human genome and its vast heterogeneity and potential. Many thanks to all those involved in the production and presentation of this excellent course.

Tony Samson made a comment
I can think of only two basic reasons for having my genome sequenced.
1) to inform me of any potential disease that can be treated
2) to inform my progeny and their progeny so that they can persue any potential for disease. 
Nora, according to the introduction of this course the human genome has about 3 billion basepairs of DNA. Sequencing is done on one strand only so your figure of 6 billion reduces to 3 billion.

I suspect that none of the abovementioned sequence analyses would be able to pick up on developmental defects caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications (eg methylation/demethylation) during development.

Tony Samson made a comment
I am surprised that there are only ~ 20,000 genes in the human genome.
What percent of the 3 billion base pairs does that represent ?
What is "junk" DNA and if much of this is really not used why does it remain and is not removed during evolution ? 
Tony Samson made a comment
The ever increasing rate and reliability of whole genome sequencing would in the future allow the production of for example ~ 100 of the "best" ie genetic diseasefree genomes representing widely different communities around the world. However, if only those genomes were present in future generations then the population would not necessarily be...

Tony Samson made a comment
Dear Dr Dessain thank you for putting on this course for A level maths students. I only did "O" level and "AO" level at school about 60 years ago and joined this course to progress in maths. I could not comprehend about 90% of the course alas. I am not aware of any futurelearn courses that might enable me to progress in maths perhaps you know of some. Thank...

Tony Samson made a comment
For question 4 the probability of throwing a 6 is 1/6 however one would surely need to throw the dice an infinite number of times to be certain of throwing a six.

Tony Samson made a comment
LOST LOTS SLOT SLTO OTSL 

I am lost again this time for ever !

Tony Samson made a comment
When you say 10 ways to pick 3 from 5 is this taking into consideration the sequences within each set of 3 or is the sequence order irrelevant ?

Tony Samson made a comment
I only managed to get two or three of the earlier q correct. Here is a simple question course followers might like to have a go at ?
For what three contiguous whole numbers a,b,c, does a+b+c = axbxc
I have found three different sets of such numbers. 
Tony Samson made a comment
I am obviously way out of my depth trying to follow this course alas.
I only have " O " and "AO" level passes in maths while at school back in 1961 and I was not in the esteemed class for "A" level maths.
However, I "discovered" the value for 0! for myself and also came up with a simple formula for testing whether a number is prime or not. Unfortunately the... 
Tony Samson made a comment
I am unable to address any of the questions so far on he course but I recall that in the Fibonacci series (viz 1,2,3,5,8, ... n (x) + n +1(x) the ratio of the n+1 to the n th value approaches the "golden ratio" ~ 1.6...However I find that any continued increasing summation of n +n +1 pairs also approaches the golden ratio.

In the previous question section for Q3, I recognised the 1,4,16,64 ...sequence as 4^0,4^1,4^2, and 4^4 but have no idea how to get the correct answer.

Tony Samson made a comment
I could not access the video !

Tony Samson replied to John Vasko
John, I too could not answer Q1 but I only found 4 ways of getting a total of 10 viz 1 3 6, 1 4 5, 2 3 5, 3 4 3, (note dice number order irrelevant).

Tony Samson made a comment
I could not even answer q1 re 3 dice. I found just 4 ways of getting a total of 10 but no way of finding how many non10 totals ! Help !

Tony Samson made a comment
Fermat's Last Theorem; no solutions for x^3 + y^3 = z^3
Let the cubed root of 9 = x then 1^3 + 2^3 = x^3also 1^3 + 0^3 = 1^3 , and what about 1^3 + i^3 = ?^3
(where i = square root of 1) what is the value of ? above 
Tony Samson made a comment
Maybe every even number greater than 7 is the sum of 4 prime numbers ?
eg 8= 2+2+2+2 12= 2+2+3+5 20= 2+2+3+3+5+5 etc
I call this Tony's Conjecture ! 
Tony Samson made a comment
Question; does a hexagon/pentagon football surface always have just 12 pentagons ?

Tony Samson made a comment
If you draw equal sized circles all close packed touching each other then fill in the spurs or gaps between the circles then one gets a shape which also can "tile" the flat plane.

Tony Samson made a comment
As the step size for the blue line approach zero then it becomes the becomes the same as the true straight green line.

Tony Samson replied to Steven John
A straight tunnel between the two points on a spherical or other nonlevel surface would allow the correct shortest distance to be measured.

Tony Samson made a comment
Why isn't the distance just x2 minus x1 ?

My choice would be Francis H.C. Crick who not only proposed the doublestranded structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) but also made important progress in elucidating the Genetic Code and pioneering the field of Molecular Biology.

Tony Samson made a comment
Again I am lost but here is a simple problem for anybody. For what value of x is the xth root of x a maximum ? Why is it this special number ?

Tony Samson replied to John Ivey
What is meant by "the semi diagonal of a square" ?

Again I am far out of my depth with modular arithmetic but is it possible to evaluate the factorial of 100 exactly ? What is the highest number for which its factorial has been calculated exactly ?

Tony Samson made a comment
I have had a quick look at your list of prime numbers up to 199. There are 14
which differ from the previous prime by 2, 9 which differ by 4, 6 by 6, 2 by 8,
2 by 10 and 1 by 14. There is only 1 which differs from the previous prime by 1 viz 3.
I assume someone has looked at a thousand or a million or more of the sequence of prime numbers to see if there... 
Tony Samson made a comment
I do not follow this at all. Surely 4x4^k +5 is not the same as 4(4^k +5)  15 . Very confused re (4^k +5 ) and also 15 .

I wish I was as good as the above students doing this course. I am a bit overwhelmed but here is a question some of you might like to solve.
For what value of x is the xth root of x a maximum ? 
Tony Samson made a comment
When I was about 18 I devised a simple formula for testing whether a number is prime or not. The formula works but is of no practical use because you have to be able to calculate the factorial of the number to be tested. The factorial of a large number is very difficult if not impossible to calculate.

Tony Samson made a comment
I do not understand why it is NOT true that x^2 >= 0 that x>=0 as stated above. For what value of x is the statement false ?

Tony Samson made a comment
When I was about 18 I devised a simple formula for testing whether a number is prime or not. The formula is of no practical use for "large" numbers as it requires the exact value of the factorial ( ! ) of the number to be tested.
(note, 0!=1, 1!=1, 2!=2, 3!=6, 4!=24, 10!= 10x9x8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 = ?? 
Thanks again Lisa

Tony Samson made a comment
I am confused again. This time with the worked examples re differentiation.
All the numbers used so far are whole numbers some positive some negative.
I have no problem with say +2 or 2 squared viz = +4 for both + & signs. When it comes to +2 & 2 cubed we get +8 and 8 fine. But what about nonwhole numbers ? Clearly +2.5 and 2.5 squared is =... 
Tony Samson made a comment
I was a science undergraduate student 5.5 decades ago way before covid made such a mess of conventional University teaching. I have always had a terrible memory (as far as I can remember), and I could only remember important concepts if I fully understood them. I did this by taking copious scribbled notes during lectures which I then copied out by clear...

Tony Samson replied to Tony Samson
@LisaMott Many thanks Lisa. I will have to get my head round it later.
Out of all the futurelearn courses I have done your feed back to participants of this course has been incredibly rapid and germane. You must be working 24 hrs a day. Many thanks, Tony 
Tony Samson replied to Tony Samson
How do you get theta =sin^1 (0.5) = 30 degrees and how does it follow that theta = 210 and 330 degrees ? I note, however, that 360  30 = 330 and also that 210 30 = 180 degrees ! Most bizarre !

Tony Samson replied to Igor Shamis
Wow ! what an answer Thanks Tony

Tony Samson made a comment
I am lost again !