Shih-Yu Lo

Shih-Yu Lo

I am Shih-Yu Lo, and currently working as an associate professor at National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University in Taiwan.

Location Taiwan


  • Yes and No. It's yes because black doesn't activate the cone. But the visual information doesn't stop at the cone level, it will continue go up to the brain. Somewhere in the brain does respond to black, which means, some part of the brain responds to the absent of cone activation.

  • Yes. Joint activation of M and L cones leads to the perception of yellow colour. But of course, there are different types of yellow; if you have more L activation, then it appears to be more reddish or orangish; if you have more M activation, then it appears to be more greenish.

  • Thanks for raising a very interesting and important question. If one has more cones, that means they have more information about the wavelength; it's very likely that they should be able to detect the subtle difference between different colours that look the same to us.

    It doesn't necessarily mean that they have a wider visible spectrum. They might even...

  • It does provide some information about the depth, but it's not the main source. The main source of depth comes from the image disparity (the difference of images) from the two eyes.

  • Actually you are supposed to look at the cross and the circle will fall into the blindspot. But the other way around also works.

  • Actually both.

  • @ChristopherReynolds Sorry for the late reply as I haven't logged on here for a while. My email is

  • I think so. Poor kitty....

  • You raised a very interesting question. If you use "neural plasticity" as the keyword, you'll find a large amount of studies showing how adaptive our brain is.

  • @MichaelBland From a psychoanalytic perspective, your ex-president must have played an important role in your life, or your trauma.

  • I have to admit that it took me quite a long time to see the dog when I saw it for the first time. But afterward it becomes hard for me to "unsee" it.

  • @DeirdreMacintyre Thanks for sharing this. I Googled it and have found the little cute things you mentioned.

  • Haha, sorry for the mispronunciation.

  • Sorry for the mispronunciation. Actually I could't find a good word for it so consulted Google. But still mispronounced it when recording the video.

    Anyway, I do agree with you that this example doesn't work 100% of the times. When I showed this in class, some people couldn't see what I wanted them to see. I think individual differences do play an important...

  • Actually there are quite a lot of studies showing that our memories for crime scenes can be subject to sociocultural factors like stereotypes.

  • This game sounds really interesting! I should try it with my students next time.

  • @ChristopherReynolds Thanks for sharing your stories, really incredible. Yes I would love to read your poster/paper.

  • Sorry I think the relationship between lateral inhibition and the receptive field wasn't explained clear enough in the video. But imagine the following scenario:

    neuron A
    neuron B --> neuron D
    neuron C

    Let's say neurons A and C send lateral inhibitions to neuron B, and neuron B sends excitatory information to neuron D. This would lead to a...

  • Yes!

  • Can you try again? I can open from my end.

  • It's not a feature of cones or rods. It occurs on the layer after cones/rods, which is the bipolar cells:

  • The "why" question is tricky. The easiest explanation is that it's a product of evolution and natural selection. But who knows?

  • Thanks for your comment.

    The visual signal transduction is: cones/rods (eye) -> bipolar (eye) -> ganglion cells (eye)-> LGN cells (brain) -> cerebral cortex (brain)

    According the paper below, lateral inhibition can be seen as early as the bipolar cell:

    But actually I think where it occurs doesn't matter. What...

  • Thanks for pointing our the typo. We'll try to fix it ASAP.

  • Thanks for your question. No, normally it's not part of eye tests.

  • I am sorry that this video is indeed a bit overly complicated. For those who don't really make sense of what I was trying to talk about in the video, here is a Youtube video:

  • Sorry to hear about your condition. Did you mean that you lost your sight in the left eye suddenly without any external cause?

  • Thanks for sharing your knowledge. Actually I didn't know that owls have higher numbers of rods. But it makes sense as that helps them navigate in the dark.

  • I am sorry that your double vision doesn't apply to your bank account.

  • I think I know how you feel. The inner universe within ourselves is actually the most strange thing to us.

  • I love reading his books, too. Recently I read his autobiography. He had a fascinating life.

  • You actually raise some issues that also fascinate psychologists, neuroscientists and philosophers.

  • I have to admit that this is my first time hearing about your condition. I just did some quick research; the term "aphantasia" was recently coined 2015.

    Would you mind talking a bit more about yourself? So, if you try to recall a previous event, like, what you had for dinner yesterday. How would you recall this event?

  • You mean there are biases in that book?

  • Keep trying!

  • @judithNewman

    For additive mixing, the three basic colours are red, green, and blue; for subtractive mixing, the three basic "subtractors" that can absorb red, green, blue. The materials that can absorb red lights appear to be green; the materials that can absorb green lights appear to be red; the materials that can absorb blue lights appear to be yellow....

  • Thanks for your question! You just raise an important topic that we didn't have time to explain in the course videos, as it's a bit complicated.

    Actually there are two types of colour mixing: Additive and Subtractive.

    The colour mixing we introduced in the course as well as the exercise is "additive mixing," which applies to the context when you have...

  • Shih-Yu Lo made a comment

    If you have watched all the videos and completed all the activities, I really appreciate your efforts and your perseverance. To be honest, the contents of this course are a bit challenging and some topics could be a bit dry for some people.

    If you didn't get all the details about those complicated theories, that's fine. But I hope that the thing that you...

  • Yes! In a way seeing can be regarded as a reciprocal process between the physical properties and the perceiver's knowledge. A particular object in a scene can trigger a certain kind of knowledge, and this knowledge can facilitate the perceptual processes for other objects that are related to the first object.

  • That's a sweet story.

  • Your belief of "human brains are hard-wired to see patterns" is a widely accepted view about human vision. But there are multiple ways to interpret such a phenomenon. Some people believe that it's a product of evolution; the visual system has evolved to automatically give meanings to whatever we see in order to survive. Another way to look at it is through...

  • I am really fascinated by your observation. But I want to make sure you and I see the same thing. You mean, if you focus on something, say, object A, while attending to something else, say, object B, between you and object A. If you look at object A "hard" with the left eye, object B appears to shift slightly to the right? And it will shift to the left if you...

  • haha.....they certainly have their own way to perceive an apple.