Francisca Lai



  • @IanCampbell thanks for your comment. I think what we can take from the experiment is that homophobic men denied their sexual reactions to the gay porn. It provided a window for us to understand the homophobic people and what might have caused their hatred.
    Regarding your comment on sampling: Social scientists use random sampling to ensure the finding is...

  • Your comment on the law and criminal justice system made me think about the long and painful procedures that victims
    of sexual assaults have to go through.

  • yes religion is a major cultural force in shaping sexuality.

  • Thanks for your comments. I generalized the sexual ideologies, i.e. in the early 20th century and in the 1960's, for laying out the changing thoughts about sex over time. And thanks for sharing the story of your grandmother. The "duty" is an expectation imposed on women in her generation, what she did and how she thought personally could be different. The...

  • Noted. Apologies for the mistake.

  • Noted. Apologies for the mistakes.

  • @IanCampbell Anthropologists also work on the issue of female genital cutting (FGC). You can check out Ellen Gruenbaum's work:

  • @TomDussman The reason why I mentioned the semen ingestion practice in the video is to address the cultural meanings behind it, which has nothing to do with homosexuality (definition of homosexuality for discussion here: men loving men). It's a male initiation practice. Herdt, the anthropologist who conducted the research, aimed to prove the sexual notion and...

  • Thanks for your comment. I'm curious to learn more from you--is there a company/middleman to arrange the dates between the foreign older women and the young men in Nigeria?

  • You raised an interesting point. Using Indonesia as an example, it is not common to see parents to marry out their daughter at the age of 16 (or younger) anymore because of the education opportunity. For those who haven't got married before they left home for overseas work, they tended to postpone the marriage. After they have made some savings after a few...

  • But, cooking and child care also require specialized knowledge if one wants to do it well.

  • yes agree.

  • @KathrynBroadhurst The crop tops example sounds interesting. It'll be great to let us know more about it!

  • haha, I like your comment

  • Yes, the Covid makes the national border becomes much political and racialized--who can previously come in but now cannot.

  • Thanks everyone for participating in this discussion.
    @Ian Campbell has raised a good point about the stigma imposed on men who financially rely on women. Although women are now said to be free to buy sex service, it’s still not socially acceptable for men to sell sex. That's why the last sentence of the article on sex tourism in Gambia addressed the view of...

  • I wasn't aware that Channel 4 is not owned by BBC. Thank you for your clarification!
    And thanks for letting me know about the organization Saga.
    Yes it's not clear that who is exploiting whom. When the relationship is not controlled by any middle-man, the side who is to provide service can usually have more bargaining power with the client.
    What I think...

  • Good point. I don't think prostitution could be eliminated at all. Making sex work illegal would just bring it to the black market.
    Re: gender ratio in the votes--the votes are anonymous and do not record the gender of the voters.

  • Thank you for your inputs! and I think most of you have grasped the focus of the discussion, which is about gender and cross-border marriages from the women's perspective, particularly the gendered expectations on the brides (such as being expected to be obedient to the husband, and serving the husband's whole family) when there is a huge financial gap between...

  • The focus of the discussion is more on the women's experience, like how gender makes cross-border marriages much difficult for them.

  • The issue of cross-border marriages becomes more complicated when there are brokers who said that they are responsible for handling the legal papers.

  • Yes agree, and it's more difficult for the side who is expected to blend in to a new culture.

  • Agree!

  • @MariBibichadze Thanks for your question! The video said that the class is for the Vietnamese brides.

  • Good thought! Your question about the intentionality of the foreign brides, whether they are keen to do it or being put up by family, will be a very do-able research project! I agree with you that there's unlikely to be a single answer because our intention is shaped by people who are around us. Family dynamics and the relationship between the girl and her...

  • Thanks for the information on foreign remittance. And it's true that the pandemic has posted a huge challenge on transnational families as well as long-distance relationships too.

  • Thank you for all of your replies! I realized that some governments do not provide statistics specifically on cross-border marriages, or the data is not easily accessible for the public. It's still great to hear your observations about cross-border marriages.

  • Thank you for your answers!

  • thank you for sharing the data regarding Australia!

  • thanks for your comment. I agree that the film was made with a positive intent. But I think it's still important to understand more from the perspective of the children (not the employer) about how they think about the relationship with the migrant domestic worker.

  • True. The relationship can be complex. Indeed, the stress faced by migrant domestic workers is huge especially they don't have any co-workers. It is another big issue that needs attention.

  • Yes, some studies support your view that it is the grandparents who take care of the left-behind kids. I found a journal paper comparing the situations in Vietnam and Indonesia. FYR:

  • Thanks for raising this interesting point!
    Internet has somehow made overseas communication easier and cheaper. But in my own study, I saw the Indonesian workers managed their photos and messages very carefully on Facebook or their behavior or morality are questioned by the family or relatives who are also on Facebook.

  • Yes, even with countries that have laws to protect migrant workers, it's difficult for migrant workers to file a complaint and to liaise with the government authorities.

  • yes the discussion was not new and had been discussed for decades. But the reality is that many women today in lower social class still struggle with the double burden. Though some well-off families can pay another woman (migrant domestic worker) from less wealthy society to do the housework, it is still women doing housework.

  • Thanks for your comment. But while there are many "new women" in wealthier societies, the housework is actually done by women from less wealthy societies.

  • Yes, and salute to our pioneers.
    I always remind myself not to take things and rights that I can enjoy for granted.

  • Thanks. Your comment reminded me the book:
    Gender Diversity in Indonesia: Sexuality, Islam and Queer Selves

  • Agree. Culture shapes our notions of nature. We impose different sets of norms on bodies that have different sexual organs. Doctors make sex binary by conducting surgery on intersex babies. Nature loves diversity but our society doesn't like diversity that much.

  • @BarbaraC This is an interesting piece. Thanks for sharing with us!

  • @JierongZhao You have raised a good question: how culture comes into the form as we can see it. Culture varies over time and across societies.

  • and, it is hard for people to adapt to a foreign caregiver when they are getting serious illness at the same time. It's a double challenge for the older generation, to adapt to the cultural difference and the decline of their physical ability.

  • Thanks for your thoughts! Some studies have shown that the "left-behind" husband has taken up household chores when the wife is working overseas. So, it may gradually change the conventional gender division of labor. And, many young girls actually follow the foot step of their mothers and became overseas domestic workers.

  • Welcome everyone! I'm glad to have you here!