Jacob Lloyd

Jacob Lloyd

Hello! My name is Jacob and I am a PhD student in Translation Studies at Cardiff University's MLANG, where I research fansubbing (subtitling). I am also a freelance translator and photographer.

Location Cardiff, Wales


  • A huge thank you to everyone who's made it this far! It's always such an insightful and rewarding process to be a part of everyone's unique learning journey on this course :)

  • That's intriguing. Do you have any examples from your experience? I'd like to hear more.

  • I agree on the whole. You want it to feel like an authentic reading experience.

    As a side note, this is why it's so important for authors to have some level of engagement with the translation process. If the author and translator can discuss and agree on a specific approach, the more likely you are to get that 'authentic' experience.

  • The acronym seems like a good idea from a marketing perspective - quite catchy.

  • It's certainly straight to the point.

  • Really interesting. I wonder what the history/etymology of the word is...

  • Sounds impressive - I can't imagine doing heavy translation work pre-PC!

  • Yes, although possibly a bit wordy/expressive for a medical context?

  • Thanks, Alex, that's very helpful.

  • To your first point, I think there's a good reason that it's quite common practice to use something like Google Translate just to get an initial rough version of a translation. It can help just to get the ball rolling.

    To your second point, who knows indeed... MT is already at a level I wouldn't have expected it to be at if you'd asked me a few years ago....

  • Thank you for sharing this, @NicolaKeller . A well-written and really fascinating insight into your linguistic and family heritage.

    And yes, I have also found from my limited experience of using Google Translate for Hungarian that the software really can't keep up with how complex a language it is! A big part of the problem there though is that it won't...

  • A lot of professional translation these days is done using translation memory software. If you regularly translate similar texts, the software keeps track of words/phrases that come up a lot, along with their translations. It will then automatically translate passages for you, which you just post-edit. Many employers prefer their translators to use such...

  • I'm inclined to agree on the whole, although AI-based translations are starting to get quite impressive... That said, I don't think it necessarily needs to be framed as human translators vs machine translators. Rather, machine translation is a tool - how we use it is ultimately up to us, for better or worse.

  • That would make sense. It's much easier to maintain a degree of semblance when the source and target language share a common root.

  • That's a really interesting breakdown. He ultimately boils it down to the classic (and much debated) aphorism that a translation can be either beautiful or faithful, but never both.

  • Yes, it's very beneficial for the original artist/producer to have some level of engagement with the process. This is a bit of a tangent, but it is becoming slightly less uncommon in (usually indie) multilingual films for directors to cooperate actively with subtitlers so that their translations can be more directly incorporated into the aesthetic style,...

  • Some really well considered suggestions here. I particularly like the idea of using an audio guide to account for the variety of languages spoken by the audience.

  • Manu Chao is awesome. I love how seamlessly he blends between languages.

  • That's an interesting example. I can see the justification for having the interpreter interface via the internet, but I can also see how that physical barrier could impede everyone's ability to communicate fully.

  • That's good to hear!

  • That's a lovely image.

  • Interesting examples!

  • One of the course builders - Dr Dorota Goluch - is researching the construction and representation of Holocaust memory actually. I'm sure she could give you an interesting discussion!

  • Interesting. What is it specifically that you're hoping to research (without giving away anything that you're not comfortable sharing yet, of course)?

  • Hi Shannen, there are definitely challenges to pursuing postgraduate study. I really hope you are able to at some point as it presents amazing opportunities :) for now, though, just enjoy this course!

  • These are very hard times financially, for sure. I hope you do get the chance to explore it further some day, but as you say, that's what this course is for in the meantime!

  • Well the MA is naturally challenging, as it is a postgraduate degree. That's not to say it's impossible, though. I recommend following the link to the page where the details of the course are explained more fully. that should give you a taste of the kind of level you would be working at. I hope that helps!

  • Yes, and these are of course very theoretical situations. In real life it's the options aren't always as black and white of course. As you point out though, striving for neutrality is important.

  • Glad you found it useful. See you in the next section!

  • I've not heard 'taf' before but I like it a lot!

  • That's intriguing. I wonder what the source of that cultural difference is...

  • A very nuanced definition.

  • No need for it to make sense. The idea here is essentially to recognise the sounds.

  • Wow, sounds like an interesting journey!

  • Welcome, and enjoy :)

  • It's always interesting to see different people's perceptions here, particularly if you speak neither English nor Welsh natively. On the one hand, being able to follow the English lyrics (even as a second-language speaker) makes the experience more accessible; on the other hand (assuming most people here don't understand Welsh), it's nice to detach from the...

  • That's a challenging compromise presumably faced by many international musicians - having to choose between your own language/culture and what might bring you more international success.

  • This is very intriguing, as we don't really have any equivalent contemporary practice on the same scale in the UK (as far as I'm aware). Would these missions usually be outside of the US?

  • That's a really insightful observation. There's massive scope for research into the unique linguistic-cultural perspectives of second-generation immigrants (certainly in the UK, but also more broadly).

  • Interesting that these are harder to find for French associations. I wonder if that relates to a genuine difference in conventions, or if the websites are just harder to navigate.

  • Vital and incredibly skilled.

  • Arguably, reading multiple translations of the same work is an especially intellectual endeavour, as you are (hopefully) revealing even more possible insights into the source material.

  • @MatthewBernobich Really interesting example of a prolific but controversial translator, which goes to show how ideologically complex translation is. On the one hand, he was bringing Rumi to a wider audience, but on the other hand, it wasn't the most 'authentic' Rumi.

  • Great example. Many of the great canonical poets were also great poetry translators. Makes sense really.

  • Hi Mohamed, and welcome to the course. I hope you find it helpful.

    Yes, the materials should all be accessible as the course adheres to FutureLearn's accessibility policy, which I will attach here: https://www.futurelearn.com/info/terms/accessibility-policy

    I have copied the most relevant section below, which explains that FutureLearn materials should...

  • Great example. Food is often a great indicator of cultural differences.

  • I love mate...

  • @SteveH True. Let me amend that to 'a *traditional* distinction'.

  • @ValentinaIjeh Hi, Valentina. Yes, it is a more challenging concept to grapple with. Matthew's definition above really covers it. It refers to conveying a message from one 'semiotic code' (i.e., form of communication) to another, e.g., from words to images or numeric code, or from verbal to non-verbal communication, etc. Does that make sense?

  • Thanks for those! Very... interesting.

  • Good point, Hannah. Arguably that would be intersemiotic and interlingual.

  • If you get the chance to read or practice poetry translation, I strongly recommend! I think you would enjoy the creative challenge.

  • I like that last sentence as it speaks to the variability of language and the necessary adaptability of translation.

  • @NicolaKeller I like your definition, Raymond, and your addition, Nicola.

  • Echoing my reply to Matthew above, I agree with your point. True neutrality is perhaps most usefully considered a conceptual goal rather than a tangible, achievable methodology.

  • You make an interesting philosophical-sociological point here. *True* neutrality, like true objectivity, is arguably impossible. As socially inflected beings, everything we do will always in same way be ideologically informed by our opinions, experiences, background, etc. Even in attempting to take a perceived 'neutral' stance, we are taking a stance that is...

  • Easy to say, (often very) hard to do!

  • Good point. This process of international homogenisation sort of mirrors the phenomenon common to all sorts of global practices, where practitioners from around the world are forced to adapt their specific methods to fit dominant (typically anglophone) norms.

  • In certain contexts, transcreation is an essential tool, e.g., when translating advertising/promotional materials. Sometimes we need to translate quite 'liberally' and move further away from the form of the source text in order to more effectively replicate its desired impact in the target text.

  • I've not heard of that one before, Albandari. Sounds really interesting!

  • That's fine, it doesn't need to make sense. The goal here is just to make us observe and reflect on the phonic element of language.

  • Quite impressive to have formed a sentence that more or less makes sense in this task!

  • That's a really interesting (and positive, constructive) interpretation. I like it! It demonstrates the power of metaphor.

  • Glad that worked out. Let us know if you have any issues with later videos.

  • Yes, the Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, etc. words for translation all share a common root in Latin, so the essential meaning is the same.

  • I agree with Albandari here. Poetry translation is one of the most challenging forms of translation that there is - there's so much nuance in appropriately conveying all of the different characteristics that contribute to a poem's evocative function (tone, register, voice, rhythm, sound, etc.). But, to put a more positive spin on it, that's what makes it so...

  • I've definitely encountered plenty (as I think most people will have) of examples of poor translations, e.g., instruction manuals, tourist information, etc. that has been run through a translation engine and not checked. Fortunately, I've not been responsible for any myself... as far as I know anyway.

  • Thanks for joining!

  • Welcome!

  • Olá, Julia.

  • Yo, Matt!

  • Bienvenido, Fernando!

  • Welcome, Hannah. This course should certainly be able to provide some insight into what studying translation can entail.

  • Bienvenue, Carole. Hopefully you can apply what you learn here to your classroom.

  • Welcome!

  • Welcome, Raymond :) I'm sure you'll find it helpful.

  • Welcome, we look forward to seeing your contributions!

  • Welcome :)

  • Hi Pablo,

    Thanks for joining us. That's a really interesting mix of linguistic experiences. Good luck with the subtitling too! That's my area of interest :)

  • Hi, Nicola. That sounds interesting, hopefully you can learn more about your linguistic history.

    No worries, good to hear you're already familiar with the materials. Do make sure to get involved in the discussions now that they're up and running, as so much of the learning here happens through interaction.

  • Olá, Pedro. I hope you find the course helpful!

  • @ShannenC.Wright A very interesting example. The next question then would be why (would the American publisher want to remove the Japanese influence)? Often in this situations, producers (particularly ones from traditionally dominant anglophone markets) want to domesticate 'foreign' cultural products as they believe their audiences want material that is...

  • Or indeed any combination of languages.

  • Perhaps indicative of a general distinction between French and British cuisine...

  • I definitely like the French image...

  • @SteveH Good point, demonstrating the importance of cultural/geographical awareness in translation.

  • Making the information flow more efficiently like this would definitely help the reader to understand, which is ultimately the goal of that text.

  • Replicating features like the rhythm or the rhyming pattern is one of the most challenging elements of poetry translation.

  • A very well-considered translation approach! It just shows how much nuance there is to this type of translation and how many possible variations there are as a result.

  • Yes, efficiency of information is important in that kind of text.

  • Agreed. There's no 'one-size-fits-all' approach to translation. We have to adapt our methodology depending on text type, function, audience, etc.

  • Good point. Tea in the UK has such a strong cultural connotation (it's practically tied to the national identity for some people) but usually only in relation to one specific kind of tea, whereas elsewhere it's more common to drink a variety of teas.

  • What does going for a coffee involve in your culture? It's always interesting to hear how much this diverges between countries/cultures/languages...

  • Good job - much easier to understand than the original.

  • This is an excellent example of how different translators might approach the same material in a completely different way according to their respective ideology/agenda/goals/skills/etc.

    A similar kind of 'non-professional' translation that I'm particularly interested in is fansubbing, which is when films and TV shows (traditionally anime) are translated and...

  • In Tagalog (Filipino), translation is 'pagsasaling-wika'. This is formed from 'salin' (to transfer a liquid from one container to another) and 'wika' (language). So we have the metaphorical image of language as something fluid that is being moved to different places to take on different forms. I like this image as it speaks to the dynamic nature of...

  • Hello, hola, bonjour, bon dia, siwmae from Cardiff, Wales. Let us know how to say hello in your local languages!

  • Thanks, Abdullah. Translation certainly is essential to globalisation. Looking forward to hearing more of your thoughts!

  • That works. Or as another student suggested, "knee roller".

  • Ah, I've just seen this after replying to your comment about Ip Man. I see you've learned the difference now already!