Anna Gray

Anna Gray

Broadcast Systems Engineer : design and operations
w e b 2 0 at i w e u a dot c o m

Location U.K..... mostly....for now, at least.


  • Yield a little bit like C's Static??

  • My only consideration : should I make one function taking radius and height, which returned two values, Area and Volume, or two functions, one returning Area and one returning Volume.

    I chose two functions for function clarity and simplicity ( to my C programmer's mind )

    round ( CylinderArea (radius,height), 2 )
    returns 471.24
    round (...

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    Python... default argument values : genius!
    It will tend to push complexity into the functions which need to be thoroughly tested. The more complex the function with the more parameters it can take, the harder it is to test under all conditions.

  • I have been learning Python for about a year, never came across *args / **kwargs and was weirded out a little as I thought they were pointers or something. Some of the ( many ) mysteries of Python are evaporating quite quickly with this course.

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    Python is just so cool !
    I guess it can get you into lots of trouble with it too!
    ( old C coder talking )

  • Run with the argument ' -h' ( h = usually for 'help' )
    >python -h

    usage: [-h]

    optional arguments:
    -h, --help show this help message and exit

  • The ipnb files are Jupyter Notebooks files. They are the course work files seen in the following videos that you can replicate on your laptop in a Browser or by installing Jupyter labs on your local machine : HOW?

    To try quickly in your browser

    goto :

    A new page will open :

    There is...

  • Yep : so you can type
    python -test

    The output will be something like
    ['', '-test']

    Now we can check if args are passed when running the script
    if sys.argv[1] == "-test":

  • Azure is a huge environment, isn't it?
    I hadn't quite realised until now.

  • Five crucial elements
    1. Azure identity services : Let the right people in, the wrong ones out
    2. Security tools and features : Security is vital
    3. Privacy, compliance and data protection standards : Best practice
    4. Secure network : Essential though most N/W traffic now secure
    5. Monitoring and reporting : To see what is and isn't working

  • GDPR was / is a EU directive with the UK now retaining the legislation and in many cases adopting a more rigorous approach. I don't think anyone wants to go near trying to unpick it.

    To untangle data and geo locate it for many international companies is well nigh impossible, and who would / what authority in reality would / could try to audit that, and...

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    I note that products such as Solarwinds and Zabbix monitoring instances can be built on Azure as 3rd party monitoring.
    These can report on bandwidth, memory, cpu usage, hard disk capacity, load balancing issues etc, vital useful on high load or high traffic peak, real time systems.

  • The use by default of password complexity rules, coupled with the widespread adoption of password managers ( Lastpass/Keepass/Browser ) has reduced the compromise of accounts significantly. Limiting access to accounts by the use of IP whitelist rules also reduces the compromise surface. That is not to say it still doesn't happen, just that it shouldn't in...

  • 30 Nov 21 : got it working after some time

    Install the CLI on Windows and Linux ( I chose Ubuntu CLI )
    I chose : Option 1: Install with one command
    then to run the program
    $ sudo az login
    You will be asked to navigate to

  • @SörenLairdSörries @DaveGunn

    The term Container in software and IT is a little nebulous, but they are essentially a ( ideally single ) software process running / depending / utilising a larger operating system superstructure.

    Thus multiple containers can run on a single Windows/Linux machine ( eg see Docker ) Much like individual shipping containers...

  • Really good introduction to Azure and demonstrates just how straightforward 'spinning up' an online resource can be

  • Top left of Azure control panel screen
    Home>VMName>Networking>Add inbound port rule >
    Source : Any
    Source Port : * (a http request can come from a large range of ports )
    Destination : Any ( We can send traffic to any public IP Address )
    Service : HTTP : Port 80
    Priority : default ( 330
    Name : Port_HTTP

  • The ( currently ) single Azure data centre for the whole continent of Africa is located in South Africa. You would be right to think that some provision should be held off the west coast catering to Ghana,Nigeria, Cameroon and Gabon for example. Currently no.

    I assume there just isn't the demand,that current West African country network infrastructure...

  • Samuel, you raise an excellent point where dedicated machines in your industry, healthcare, manufacturing etc have high functionality, working, stable software, often running on legacy operating systems ( windows / embedded linux etc ) that can't be put 'in the cloud'.

  • Can the use of such a system justify the application of the right not to be subjected to automated individual decision-making?

    The question is necessarily complicated by the 'NOT'

    To rephrase ( if only for my own clarity )
    Should a person have decisions made, that could affect their future, by a computer / algorithm, based on data they have uploaded to...

  • This area of law, morals and public debate is still under development.

    A key aspect of the Mario Costeja González was that the argument that the original article in the newspaper should be retrospectively redacted was thrown out.

    It is still a matter of public record, in the newspaper that Mario Costeja González was subject to court proceedings, it...

  • Data that is difficult or impossible to change that could, if put together enable identity theft ( DOB / Place of Birth / Current complete address / other biometrics that cannot ever be changed by the Data subject ( me/you ) )

    Full Name
    Exact DOB
    Place of Birth
    Current Address
    Extrapolated information of other family members

  • The data owner of the opinion would be the author of the opinion, not the subject of the opinion.
    Other areas of law cover subsequent ( inadvertent or requested ) release of this data, ( libel/ slander/ discrimination ) etc.

    The data ( Employer opinions ) is private and confidential and cannot be released, companies or individuals could be sued if such...

  • All browsers offer the ability to
    1 delete cookies,
    2 to block cookies
    3 Use extensions like uBlock to limit exposure
    4 More usefully, only allow cookies for the 'session'.

    Why would you choose 4.. Sites need to know that you have logged in and authenticated, banking and financial sites, but it is sensible for you to tell your browser to forget this...

  • Occasionally, its representatives tell visiting parents that personal data of their children, including names, home addresses and genders, are processed.

    Transparency :
    The parents should as best practice be informed automatically when initially submitting data, the scope of all future data processing purposes of their children.

    In the event that that...

  • Many of the larger organisations the Googles / FBs etc have an automated process to release your data, reducing the very real cost of processing.
    The cost of processing and release of data to subjects by data holders can of course be reduced by companies, other entities, by ensuring that they hold very little data on data subjects, or even purging PII data...

  • Prior to the internet, the concept of data privacy, PII, identity theft was the stuff of obscure spy novels.
    No longer.
    Identity theft, loss of financial reputation, is common place and costing the public millions a year.
    Companies have till recently been extremely lax about storing customer PII, considering this database a free resource for them to use...

  • A colleague recently conducted a Survey using one of the online Surveys. The Output of the Survey included IP addresses of the participants, but no other PII.
    An individual flagged this, IP addresses are ruled as PII.

    In direct answer to 'Would you be able to indicate whether you will have to acquire data subjects’ consent'
    It would appear that erring on...

  • The UK is fully aligned with GDPR regulations. Trade, irrespective of it's nature, will still occur between UK and citizens and entities of EU states. This data must be protected with the same level of safeguards as if the data had not left the EU.

    Regardless of political statements, legal alignment and safeguarding of data will still be necessary between...

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    1) Why is it important for you to know about the General Data Protection Regulation?
    Professional obligation as a professional working in and around IT, to my team, colleagues and customers

    2) What do you know already about this legal instrument?
    The general overview, the importance of ensuring data is kept secure, the importance of obfuscating PII as a...

  • 7 May 2020 Nigeria 2020 budget: OPS backs proposed $20 oil price benchmark

    I had not read this when I posted

  • @DavidMcGovern
    David : I was referring to the Maths and the laws of thermodynamics. When we invent a lossless system that can store and then deliver energy at 100% efficiency, your statement will be correct, but we do not have that in batteries or mechanical systems including air compression systems or pumped storage eg Dinorwig.

    For every Watt of energy...

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    A CBA of smart grids is never going to be favourable to the technology without a 'true' cost of the alternative.

    The alternative ,burning fossil fuel, which is very cheap to do, can be done at huge scale, very low complexity and proven, coal, gas and even diesel oil generators.

    The true value of smart grids is they try to minimise and then optimise...

  • @MariaGrigg
    It is vital to mindful of why we modern optimisation technology, embodied as computers, algorithms, inter connectivity, data transfer etc is so important in our modern world, specifically for energy generation and delivery, the course subject.

    Not so long ago we ran coal fired power staions 24/hours day at full tilt, lucky to deliver 35% of...

  • Anna Gray made a comment

    Page 88 really highlights the technical challenges of mass, at scale, grid storage with none of the technologies greater than a few 10s of MW.
    That raises the question for me, is grid storage the way to go?

    Should we be looking ( given currently available technology ) at more local resources, where homeowners EVs and domestic battery storage devices are...

  • @MarkTulley
    Mark, Modern grid managment is really important for frequency stabilisation : I am guessing the Battery system will be a Fast Frequency response system, which helps take out the spikes the grid can be prone to when resources ( especailly renewables ) come on and off line.
    Gridwatch is a really useful realtime resource showing the real data of...

  • There is no doubt electric 'everything' is the future, especially as renewables are really gaining traction in the energy mix and contributing significant amounts to nation states as we speak.

    The US is just waking up to offshore wind and catching up very quickly with European initiatives in the North Sea, some great podcasts on the US wind industry here :...

  • I think the public is beginning to appreciate 'total cost' of energy more and becoming more receptive to pay the full cost of having a cleaner environment.

    Renewables do have a significant cost in terms of the extra layer of management and technology that needs to be added ( Storage / supply diversity / sophisticated scheduling ) to ensure stability.


  • Mark : it is hard to know the exact situation, and I wonder if some of the narrative about turbines being switched off is entirely accurate.
    As I glance at right now, Monday 11th May at midday, I see that 48% or UK energy right now is supplied by Renewables, 18% from wind, 21% from Solar, 9% from Biogas.
    The maximum peak...

  • @IanBlack
    Ian I am a little confused. The Carbon Cycle is well understood chemistry the proof all around us in the form of sun,oxygen, carbon dioxide and plants.

    If we dig a little deeper into the earth, we find all the carbon that has been stored over the earth's entire life in the form of long chain hydrocarbons, coal, oil, gas.

    We are doing a...