Daneen Cowling

Daneen Cowling

Geography MSc Researcher at the University of Exeter
Content Creator for Invisible Worlds
Mentor on Climate Change: The Science, and Climate Change: The Solutions

Twitter: @DaneenCowling

Location Exeter



  • Hi! I'm one of your course creators.

    To find out more about the research around planetary boundaries, please check out the following link:


    Some useful articles to read can also be found here:...

  • Hi @AngelaW, I agree it can get quite depressing and overwhelming when we think of all the awful things we have done and do to our planet. But it's important to use these emotions and energy into the positive things we can do now we have such a clearer understanding of our impacts. Every cloud has a silver lining - we've done some devastating damage to Earth...

  • Hi @BarbaraStevenson, great insights! I agree, sustainability has a long way to go to actually be 'sustainable', this especially true for the technologies you've mentioned like solar power and wind which still rely on non-renewable materials to be built. But at some point there is a pay off, and if we look at is relative to oil/coal/gas it is more sustainable,...

  • Hi @JaneLlewellynDixon, intense weathering refers periods in earths history where either the climate or the geology has permitted high weathering and thus supply of rock minerals to the oceans. For example, this could be during times of high rates of mountain uplift where exposed fresh and elevated rock are weathered and eroded by rain, exporting to the ocean....

  • Hi Hazel,

    I agree, such invisible scales are hard to imagine but hopefully we can offer some new insights with this course!

  • Hi E W, that does seem to be the case! One element of the system is becoming out of balance with it's regulatory elements, which as we've seen in the past only leads to climate instability to re-configure the system.

  • You're exactly right Ian! Artecology are pushing to get Artecology into developments and have been able to make minor retrofits, but planners etc can be hard/slow to come round to these ideas.

  • Hi Aviva sounds awesome! Do you have any more detail on this?

  • Great plan Nicholas, I would love to see these structures along the Exe! If you come across anyone interested do put them in touch with the Artecology team!

  • @LucieT Hi Lucie! Do keep an eye on the website, a new map is in progress that will highlight Artecology locations around the country and the IOW!

  • Thanks for sharing this and giving us extra info to find out more!

  • @JennySnook yes definitely do! Feel free to post them on social media and tag us (Exeter Climate)

  • @ElisabethGemmell wow this is so interesting thanks for sharing Elisabeth, will definitely look further into this.

  • @IanCorker Hi Ian, yes I have this tends to be where a lot of the research is based, it's just unknown whether it will be visible in high energy small scale coastal environments. But I'm sure there will definitely be different river chemistries depending on the different rock types that travel over.

  • Definitely worth checking out whats living inside too! (and around the outside)

  • Super important recent initiative, the richness of data for this cause is increasingly desired - thanks for sharing Alberto!

  • This was really interesting to learn, thanks Md!

  • good question! UK politics is bonkers

  • Hi Ian, thanks for asking such brilliant questions. More alkaline water could potentially buffer (again, not well known) because spatially rain isn't a constant thing so it's difficult to get measurements of this.

  • Hi Ian! I'm looking into this currently for my dissertation, and the reservoir's of carbonate rocks around the world are really really disputed, arguably unknown. This is because you also get terrestrial inputs of alkaline minerals, corals and carbonate coastlines - some of these get neglected. Furthermore, their input of the buffering minerals has not been...

  • That's great to hear thanks for sharing Heather!

  • Hi Neil! Great idea which has definitely been practiced elsewhere, the only problem with this is the spatial scale - you will only cover small areas of beach/shoreline with this method. This might be good fun to test at a beach clean event though so maybe suggest it to event host's (surfers against sewage for example)

  • @DaveHall Yes International Atomic Energy Agency - they didn't make it very clear!

  • Art is central to the ideology of Artecology - (it's in the name!) I recommend getting in touch with Ian (his email is on the bottom of this webpage), or feel free to message me and I can put you in touch with them, my twitter is @daneencowling :-)

  • @RayBoundy @karenarmstrong-asquith I know, using weed killer is bonkers, moss is such an important ecosystem! Artecology have brought this ideology to a city centre and made a "bio-graffiti wall" which was lined with moss, had imprinted channels to water, and external plantings as well as various textures and punctuated holes for habitats. It is important we...

  • I agree, the actions of some councils is just crazy! Yes concrete isn't the best in terms of CO2, but Artecology tries to minimise this with specific bio-receptive concrete along with using recycling materials such as rope, newspapers and other materials to make designs. They have also trialled pools using recycled tyres which have also shown brilliant...

  • Hi Doug, you're right we still aren't solving the "climate change problem", but this is definitely a step in the right direction. We have and still are waiting year on year for governments to get their act together and introduce legislation that will help achieve climate targets and help mitigate impacts. However, some species cannot wait this long for change,...

  • Hi John, yes it is! One of the coolest installations of Artecology on a terrestrial waterway is the "eel-avator", which used a combination of textures along a small stream to help with the migration of eels upstream. In addition to helping the declining population of eels, it looks amazing too!

  • Hi Melissa,

    I don't know a great deal about this, but found this website that might give some useful methods to do this!


  • Hi Dave, thanks! Yes proxies exist, such as Carbon isotopes. These can be used to determine the chemical balances of seawater at the time, temperature, and ocean currents which can be used to relate to current conditions to infer what conditions were like. I've attached an article which might be an interesting read about how these isotopes are...

  • Not confidently, no. We do not have a lot of data pre 1970s on coral responses to these sorts of changes, so it makes it difficult to determine the long term trends without a great deal of data. Geological records can be useful but are sparse, have gaps and don't say a great deal about rate of response. We can simulate these predicted changes by using lab...

  • Great links thanks for sharing Antonio! Also good points about the wide range of impacts one change in the oceans can have, affecting physics, biology and chemistry of the oceans - a truly interdisciplinary problem!

  • Daneen Cowling made a comment

    Check out this webpage created by the Artecology team, explaining how their concepts and designs provide effective and sustainable climate change solutions!


  • Difficult to say John, there is so much! Especially as a lot of it is so small to physically see making removal difficult, along with long life times in the oceans as some take many years to degrade. There is hope though, new methods are constantly being trialled to remove plastics of all sizes! Check out this technique...

  • @MIcheleRoot Definitely! But this is usually the case for all scientific proposals. The ones that receive the least backlash tend to be the ones that cost the least!

  • @JessicaMcGarty Great blog thanks for sharing Jessice, I've definitely learnt a lot and enjoyed checking out the additional links. You might like to know that yesterday was also world seagrass day, definitely something to celebrate!

  • Great link, thanks for sharing Kerry!

  • Great link, thanks for sharing Aarne!

  • Hi Neil, thanks for joining and great you're already doing so much to reduce your footprint! I hope this course will offer additional solutions you can do and how you can share important knowledge to others.

  • Thanks for sharing Greg and welcome to the course! We will be covering these issues in the weeks to come, looking forward to seeing your insights.

  • @BayM The majority of thes sulphur dioxide will react with water to produce sulphuric acid (acid rain), and incorporated into the hydrological cycle.

  • @KateClark What a brilliant idea! It's a great tool to use and share for others to use!