Helen Paul

Helen Paul

I am an economic historian based at the University of Southampton. My initial research interest was the South Sea Bubble, a financial market crash in 1720.

Location Southampton, UK


  • I didn't know anything about it until fairly recently. I can't remember anyone mentioning it in my childhood.

  • Thanks!

  • That's very interesting. In Amsterdam, it would be the 'wind trade' not bubbles.

  • That's very true!

  • That is interesting.

  • Thanks Dawn. Ann Petty would not have got a 'fair trial' in the modern sense. Most trials lasted half an hour or so. Juries heard several trials before considering their verdicts. Not a great state of affairs. More info here: https://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Trial-procedures.jsp
    This might explain some of the oddities in the trial accounts.

  • Some tribal groups do. For instance, using cattle as wealth. In terms of an official national currency, i can't think of one.

  • I really enjoyed reading Glyn Davies' History of Money

  • Thanks very much indeed. The street charity issue is important and so are bank branches for the vulnerable.

  • Thanks for the link

  • Thanks Amelia and thanks for the picture as well.

  • Very true.

  • That's an interesting thought. It probably started as 'book money', i.e. a record of debts owed.

  • Thanks Edith. It's good to be reminded of this sometimes.

  • That makes the ownership of media outlets (newspapers etc.) all the more interesting.

  • Thanks, Jean.

  • You can ask them.

  • Thanks, Nadine. I'm glad that you found something new.

  • Thanks, Gus.

  • Thanks, David. Good luck with the A levels (or whatever they are replaced with).

  • Thanks, Gus, especially for the quote.

  • Thanks for the link.

  • Thanks, John. It is amazing to think about.
    Quis custodiet ipsos custodes

  • Thanks, Cynthia.

  • Thanks, Steven.

  • Thanks, John.

  • Thanks, Nadine.

  • That is an interesting comparison. Both campaigns hinge around the vulnerability of women and children.

  • Thanks, Cynthia.

  • Thanks, John. It's also clear that people like Defoe were paid to comment. They therefore had to say something, even if they didn't really understand the full details.

  • Thanks, Mary. I went up to Studley to meet the National Trust guides. They said they dreaded having to explain the Bubble.

  • Thanks. There is a good book by John Carswell on the topic.

  • Thanks, Keegan, for the link.

  • @AndrewD By everything is done online and automated, do you mean crypocurrencies or peer-to-peer lending? Banks as financial intermediaries clearly do much of their business online.
    Plus, we tend to notice regulation when it fails. We don't notice it when it succeeds. Various crises have been made worse by governments weakening regulators or by using the...

  • Thanks, John.

  • Thanks Muhammad. It all depends very much on how we define the words to start with.

  • That's an interesting point. We rely on the figures being accurate, but often they might not be.

  • Thanks, Andrew.

    Regarding Hitler, this might be of interest:

    He also got funding from big US corporations, like Ford.

    Plus, using slave labour and also stealing resources from the victims of the Nazis.

  • Thanks. You are right that bonds are less risky than shares in the same company as bondholders get paid first.

  • Thanks, Janet. It's very difficult to disentangle yourself from the stock market completely. It's interesting that more and more institutions are looking at 'ethical investments'. Here's the Church of England list of things they are not supposed to invest in: