Susanne Hodgson

Susanne Hodgson

I am an Academic Clinical Lecturer in Infectious Diseases & Microbiology at the University of Oxford with a research interest in the development of novel vaccines.

Location United Kingdom


  • A good question! In some of the phase 3 studies participants have been completing weekly testing to check for asymptomatic infection - this will provide important information to assess whether these vaccines prevent infection as well as severe disease.

  • The current results that have been released in the press show the vaccines work but the big question is how long the protection last for. Mass vaccinations with an efficacious vaccine are likely to be effective at reduces disease and death but if immunity wanes quickly (e.g. within a year) then we may see cases rising again. if this happens further booster...

  • A great point! Such trials will only be given approval to be conducted if sites can show they have stringent processes in place to prevent the release of the challenge agent into the community.

  • Good question! The narcolepsy link was not known prior to release so I imagine individuals with narcolepsy were vaccinated. I've not seen any reports of problems in this group.

  • Pandemerix is not currently used. However, the strain H1N1 is used in the UK flu vaccine for 2020 season.

  • Pandemerix was tested in children and licensed in children. Nacrolepsy did not present immediately but instead in the months and years after vaccination. In the case of flu vaccines, populations not at the highest risk (children) are often vaccinated to prevent transmission in older more vulnerable populations.

  • Welcome to course! Great to see so many people here from such diverse backgrounds. I do hope you enjoy the course. BW Susanne

  • It is great to see so many people joining the course rom all over the world. We really hope you enjoy it and find it useful.

  • Elimination means stopping the transmission of a disease in a specific geographic area or country, but not worldwide. Disease eradication is the permanent reduction of a disease to zero cases through deliberate measures such as vaccines. Polio is only eliminated as there is some ongoing transmission and new cases.

    Each WHO region can consider certification...

  • Hi Sekerani - answers to questions 2 and 3 will become clear later in the course! Re Q1, most important issues are development costs, identifying a correlate of vaccine efficacy in the lab so add vaccine development and screening.

  • Wonderful to hear, thanks Carol

  • Thanks Charlotte, that is very interesting to know.

  • Sorry to hear this Eric - I can hear the video fine on my laptop - maybe check your settings?

  • Thanks for your comment Evelyn. I'm not aware of any situations where individuals have compulsory vaccination, even in health care settings. At all times consent is required for vaccination. Some institutions may however have consequences for individuals who decline vaccination (e.g. not able to work in certain health care settings or have places in nursery...

  • Interesting and valid points Evelyn. Unfortunately vaccinology, as with most health care is not immune from political influence.

  • Evelyn, I have looked at this article and take stock with many of the points made. The article is not referenced and I'm not sure it is peer reviewed. The fact that swine flu was not associated with more severe disease was a blessing but a pandemic was most definitely seen. RE the safety of the vaccine, subsequent studies have shown an association of the...

  • Thank you for your contributions Adam.

  • Great to hear, thanks Amina.

  • Hi Maria - thankfully Hepatitis B vaccination has recently been added to the UK routine childhood vaccination programme

  • Julie, I think you make a v important point. Given that many vaccine preventable diseases have become uncommon, the public is often prone to forget the potential terrible costs in terms of illness and mortality of these infections and underestimate the importance of vaccination.

  • Hi Kevin, unfortunately even Oxford is not immune to rising levels of vaccine preventable diseases - in particular measles and bordatella pertussis.

  • Thank you all for the positive comments - we hope you enjoy week 2.

  • Thanks for your comments Barbara - we are working on the glossary! Yes we have been reading the comments but perhaps not commenting as much as we should - we'll try to do more so!

  • Hi Hilary, it depends on the country you live in, but in the UK we're lucky that we have NHS health records where any vaccinations you have will be recorded. In other settings where vaccine use is not clearly documented then it can be difficult to estimate vaccine uptake.

  • Thanks Charlotte - making childhood vaccinations mandatory can increase uptake but is controversial in many parts of the world. What are the penalties if parents fail to comply with the mandatory vaccinations in Australia?

  • I agree Carla - its important to try and maximise vaccine coverage by trying to promote vaccination at all opportunities.

  • An interesting point Julie and one which I'm sure most travellers don't always appreciate!

  • Absolutely Faisa - I thin this is true for most settings!

  • Hi Keith - there is no evidence to show that co-administration of vaccines in the MMR vaccine is associated with any safety concerns. In contrast, by giving single dose vaccines, the duration for which individuals are at risk of infection is prolonged, putting them at risk. This is one of the reasons why the UK has not adopted single dose vaccines for measles,...

  • GAVI and the WHO do help subsidise administration of vaccines in low and middle income countries, esp in outbreaks settings, but you are right - lack of funds can be a big barrier to vaccine implementation in many parts of the work @CarlaWilson

  • Thanks Carla - routine vaccination of pregnant women in the UK is now offered in response to rising rates of pertussis infection - antibodies pass from the mother to the infant offering protection until the infant is old enough to receive vaccination.

  • You're right Carla, there is no evidence showing a link between autism and vaccination.

  • Hi Amit, what particular area of vaccinology would you like to read more about?

  • Extremely useful. Thank you.