Skip to 0 minutes and 12 secondsGood afternoon, ladies. We are here to do some Philosophy for Children, to have an inquiry on a question that you will select as we move through the process. But we are going to start today by doing a little philosopher fruit salad. Change seats now. If you believe that children can do things just as well as adults.

Skip to 0 minutes and 57 secondsCan I have some help please? Change seats if you think even though we may not be superior to animals, it's OK that we eat them, considering that they eat other animals.

Skip to 1 minute and 15 secondsDoes anyone--

Skip to 1 minute and 20 secondsChange seats now if you believe in equality.

Skip to 1 minute and 27 seconds[INTERPOSING VOICES] It's alright pet. You can take that wee seat there, I think that's a good one to end on. These are your stimulus record sheets.

Skip to 1 minute and 38 secondsAll right, so we'll do a reading snake. Who would like to be the head of the snake? Yes, I'm a nine-year-old girl, but I am still a serious reporter, Hilde Kate Lysiak. I didn't start publishing Pennsylvania's Orange Street News so that people would think I'm cute. I'm Hilde Kate Lysiak, the publisher of Orange Street News. I am nine years old. My story went viral this week when I responded to residents in my town who were upset that I was reporting on a serious crime rather than doing-- well, whatever it is that they think nine-year-old girls should be doing. Here's what happened. On 2nd of April, there was a homicide in centre of Pennsylvania.

Skip to 2 minutes and 20 secondsIt took place just a few blocks from my house where I run my newspaper. I acted on a tip from a very good source that I was able to get through some of my other reporting. In fact, some other news sites from adults were reporting the wrong information or no information at all. While the Orange Street News was at the scene doing the hard work to report the facts to the people. In the hours that followed, many residents of Selinsgrove began making negative comments about me and my website and other social media site. I understand that, as a reporter, the things I cover will sometimes make people mad.

Skip to 2 minutes and 54 secondsBut these negative comments were not so much about the homicide I was covering, but the fact that I, a nine year old girl, was covering at all. Some people have asked me if I thought people would have reacted differently if I were a boy. Maybe. Maybe not. Quiet reflection time, ladies. You've got two minutes to jot down first thoughts, key concepts, key words, things that you find in the article, any questions that come to mind at this point.

Skip to 3 minutes and 26 secondsAnother 30 seconds. Then you're going to have to take it into Knees Together group.

Skip to 3 minutes and 34 secondsOK. I'm going to pop you into Knees Together groups now. Your job is to create one question among yourselves to put forward for voting. OK. So you know that that's going to involve discussion and you know that you need to listen to each other. One, two, three, four. Why does it matter about your age and gender? We should be able to do what we want to do at anytime I've got, why do people not let anyone do what they want and do stories give the same reaction to everyone? I think that most people are going to go for something like this, though, so we should-- What was your question again?

Skip to 4 minutes and 7 secondsWhy are children told they can't do something as well as adults? So thank you very much. We have now got five excellent questions that made in your groups. And I'm going to air these for you now. We're going to-- instead of doing board work with these, sometimes we would air them on the board, we are going to air them on the floor like the good old days. So is social media becoming a bigger platform for bullies? Why do we feel the need to judge people by what they love to do? Would the world be better without stereotypes? And finally, what is maturity? This one. Why do they feel the need to judge people by what they love to do?

Skip to 4 minutes and 57 secondsAnd would the world be better without stereotypes? I think they're connected, because if we didn't have stereotypes, I don't think we would judge people as much. Because from the stereotypes, we think that you have to be somewhat like it. And if you're not, then we start to judge them. Lovely. OK, where were we? Oh, voting. Two votes? Yeah. Just with hands, just with paws. Yeah. Can you vote for your own question? Yeah. Everybody happy just-- OK. So we're going to have an open vote. You've got two votes each. Can you vote twice for the same question? OK. Are we ready? May I borrow that pen that you had a moment ago? That's brilliant.

Skip to 5 minutes and 41 secondsSo why are children told they can't do something as well as adults? Hands in the air if you'd like to inquire on that please. Make your decision now and stick with it. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven. Thank you. Two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. OK ladies. You have voted. And the question that got the vote or the majority vote is, why do we feel the need to judge people by what they love to do? So first words. One minute. Turn to your partner. First ideas. Let's have a clear of head. Let's get the first thoughts out of the way. 30 seconds each, actually, off you go.

Skip to 6 minutes and 30 secondsI think although like whatever people love to do, that's their opinion. But I think it shows you obviously this world is as I said, full of stereotypes, and we do judge, but I think it's a question whether what people love to do is right or wrong. And though they may love to do it, is it beneficial for their health and in the long time, their life? So that's when the judging comes-- Yeah, like where people think, though they're doing this they I love it and I respect that, is that good for them?

Skip to 6 minutes and 57 secondsI just think that people-- it's also when some people are judged themselves, so they feel the need to do it to others, maybe as payback to the person that judged them in the first place or just because that's what they feel like taking their anger out. Explain those first thoughts to a close. I'm just assembling possible resources that we might use but we might not. So why do we feel the need to judge people by what they love to do? Some people might feel the need to judge other people because say you're like 13 in the 21st century but you like shows from the 80s, something might be like, oh that's weird. You're 13.

Skip to 7 minutes and 35 secondsYou shouldn't be liking stuff like that, because they feel like it's not normal for someone like that and it's just different to other people. I think people have the need to judge because I think it's all about expectations, it could be based on gender or race or age or anything. Before, in the olden times, when girls only wore dresses, it wouldn't be right It would be shunned to do something like that. So it might be because of what was traditional.

Skip to 8 minutes and 4 secondsAnd another thing could be because when people feel like it's traditional and it's set to be how a woman and a man get married, but how maybe if in the newer-- since it's the 21st century, people would think, well, gay marriages are OK. But other people may judge that person just because it's been set to everybody has those expectations that you're meant to have a certain life, where you're meant to get married to a woman and a man. And you're meant to have children and you're meant to have a family like that. And people don't understand that, well, everybody's brought newer things in and that it's OK for gay marriages to happen.

Skip to 8 minutes and 47 secondsThere also might be expectations, because some people might be afraid of new things. And they want things to stay the same, like the way they know. Because they might not know how to react to things such as gay marriages. And they don't-- because they're used to having a man and a woman. And yeah. Like what Janvi and Farah said, I'd agree with them. And some people just don't accept that the world's got more modern and things are allowed and they think that everything should be how it used to be and nothing should be accepted.

Skip to 9 minutes and 19 secondsAnd I also think because of the way people have been brought up in their families and the way that different cultures are set out, because for example, in different religions, you have people believing in certain things. And I think that comes into play when, again, people do something new that people don't like and beliefs clash together.

Skip to 9 minutes and 44 secondsI think it's in everyone's mindset to judge. Like to say what they have and their opinion. And-- yeah. May I just step in here in just a moment. So we've moved now-- why do we feel the need to judge people by what they love to do and we've had some idea that it might have something to do with this fear of the norm-- of wanting to be normal, wanting to meet expectations. We've unpacked that a little bit further and with this idea of what's the purpose of expectation. And we've got this idea of tradition. We want to keep with traditions and we've linked to that this idea of fear of what we don't know.

Skip to 10 minutes and 25 secondsAnd Una was helpful in bringing about clashing beliefs and upbringing and culture and how actually this-- the expectations are to keep things stable. Would that be fair? But then we got a curveball thrown in. That actually, it's not really about the expectations at all. Human beings are just natural judgers. We just like to judge. And so it suggests that even while we might be keeping to expectations, perhaps that's because it suits us. Because that's in our personality. Is that your point? I think they all-- like judging it leads to someone's religion, as Una said. And their beliefs on what they think.

Skip to 11 minutes and 17 secondsI think as Zainab said, it is in our nature of a human to judge, but when it comes to the question where it says why we judge people by what they love to do, respect that, but in my opinion, I don't think what she's doing is good for her in long term. I don't think it's beneficial for her in long life. And I think a lot of partial judging is whether it would be good for them or not, not that we don't respect that they love to do what they do, but whether it would be good for them or what they are doing is good for them.

Skip to 11 minutes and 48 secondsCan I just remind us to include voices that perhaps haven't gotten in so that we get as many different viewpoints as possible? And just one other thing, you've again, extended it, linking it back to the question. Well done. So you're actually saying, that well no, it might well be natural, but in this instance, it's because we think we can foresee consequences for the person. OK. Pick it up there. To judge someone is when you want someone to do exactly what you're trying to do.

Skip to 12 minutes and 20 secondsLike for an example, if I'm judging someone because they don't like the things I like to do and I really want them to do what I want to do, I think it is really, really wrong, because not everyone can be the same. And-- I think in a way I agree Kaviya, because if you're being judged, sometimes, it still can hurt, whether or not the person shows it. So maybe if this person was asking for the help and the opinions, then it would be OK. But if they're not, it could hurt them, whether or not they know. I'm mindful of the time and I think we probably should move on to last words at this point.

Skip to 12 minutes and 58 secondsSo shall we do one at a time? Nobody can comment on what you're saying. It's what you get to say what you want to say about the question, why do we feel the need to judge people by what they love to do or about the process. Anything at all. OK. Who'd like to start us off? I think another reason for judging people is because of it if it's a job of the money that they're going to make. And that links to their health, as well. Because I was talking to my great auntie the other day and I told her I wanted to do something in music. And she looked at me and she looked really concerned.

Skip to 13 minutes and 37 secondsAnd she said, why do you want to do that? And I said, because I love it. And she said, but you're not going to make much money if you're bad. I started worrying. And she told me to become a dentist. But-- I don't want to spend my lifetime looking at people's mouths, even if it does make me more money than doing what I love to do will. And I understand that she's concerned about my health and how I'm going to live, but I'd rather be broke in a way and still be able to do what I love than be rich and just doing something I hate.

Skip to 14 minutes and 11 secondsI think, though, this girl's an inspiration because she tells basically all the kids around her age and her generation that do what you love and she has a really, really good, strong voice. Ladies. We've had a very fruitful inquiry. And now it's the opportunity to show your appreciation of each other and of the community. If you could now stand up, go find a person, go stand next to the person who said the thing that interested you the most. [INTERPOSING VOICES]

Case study lesson: use of talk

In the previous step, we heard Will Ord describe an approach called P4C (Philosophy for Children). In this step, you will watch a P4C lesson in action with a class of girls.

As you watch the video, consider the following questions then share your thoughts in the comments section:

How does the teacher enable the girls to construct their own line of enquiry? What might be the impact on these learners? How does this approach improve the quality of dialogue?

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This video is from the free online course:

Girls' Education: Teaching Strategies That Develop Confidence, Resilience and Collaboration

Girls' Day School Trust