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Cell, Genetics, DNA sequence introduction

And to start from the bioinformatics, for the bioinformatics study, we need to understand a couple of sense of molecular biology. So the molecular biology starts from the cell and after that, they move to the chromosome. And also, the chromosome will be… In chromosome, there are a lot of DNA, and genes are represented for the DNA. And DNA sequence is a ……is a  goal and also is a combine to… DNA combine from different nucleic base, and different nucleic bases combine to form the nucleic acids. And we chain together to build the DNA. And DNA is very important in our life. And it is the language of life. And it’s the code which sets the foundations for all living organisms.
And you can see here, this is a big picture to show you to  demonstrate about the DNA sequence. You’ll think like……DNA sequence just like a book. It comprises of some combination of the alphabet letters. And the DNA is comprised of some  combination of around 3.2 billion nucleobases.
And among…four nucleobases we  conclude: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and also the guanine (G). And all of the collective sequences, we call it is a genome. And for different people has different DNA sequences. For example, here you can see that there are two DNA sequences and there are two different position from the T and… from the T become  to A, and then the C becomes to A. Here, like if I had black hair and then  you’ve got a different color. And also,   if you have black, we can add it to the list of  things in common. Just like if you have the same characteristic in the DNA sequence, so it means that the same characteristics in the body.
To understand bioinformatics, this study…most bioinformatics, this study focus on the transcription and also translation of  the process, which we call genes expression. And from this figure, we saw that the transcription is the synthesis of   any type of complementary RNA from a DNA template. And the transcription is to have you to  transform from the DNA to RNA And moreover, the translation is another process. A process to which…in which, messenger  RNA molecule is used as a template to build   a protein from the specific sequence  of amino acids encoded by the mRNA. So you see here, there are two processes,   this one is a transcription and  the second one is the translation. And the idea is try to transfer from DNA to proteins.
And most bioinformatics studies focus on this process,   and this process we call it “gene expression”. And here, for the gene expression,  you know that our body, or human,   has about more than 250 cell types, like the  muscle, like skin, and so the bone, and so on. However, just are a few genes are expressed. “Expressed” means that they can translate to RNA and to  differences in gene expression. It will decide on different translation processes, and that’s why if you want to focus on some bioinformatic study to understand the translation of process, you need to understand the expression levels of different genes and it is also one kind of data that use a lot in bioinformatics studies.
There are two different platforms…actually,  many platforms for gene expression. Here I try to…I try to show you two most  popular platforms for gene expression. We call microarray and also  the RNA sequencing here. Microarray is a common one and RNA sequencing is more expensive; however, nowadays, the cost of RNA sequencing is lower. That’s why many people, many advanced studies now, they try to apply RNA sequencing  in their bioinformatics study. And actually, the results from the microarray and also RNA sequencing is not much different. They just show you about different genes. Like here, different genes and also different  expressions for each substrate of each expression.

Bioinformatics research and application include the analysis of molecular sequence and genomics data. Dr. Khanh Le will explain the basic idea of DNA Sequence, transcription and translation, and Gene Expression. You could also see the figure showing the difference in Gene Expression on a different platform.

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