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Natural heritage features, formations and criterions

Natural heritage features, formations and Criterions
In section 7, I’m going to talk about the criterion for the world natural heritage. The natural heritage. I understand this course is talking about the culture and tourism, but you know , the natural heritage also the meaning is defined by people with its cultural meaning. So let’s talk about what is the evaluation for the criterion of the natural heritage.
The nature heritage consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view, that is called the natural feature. The second category is the geological and physio-graphical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;
The third category, we call that the natural sites, or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.
So the outstanding universal value to evaluation the natural heritage based on four criterion, criterion seven, which is the culture criteria and natural criteria, is contain Criteria. So the criterion begins at the Criteria seven to Criteria ten, the Criteria seven contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; The criteria eight, outstanding examples representing major stages of earth’s history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms , or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
Criterion nine, be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals; The last criteria, criterion ten contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of science or conservation. So let me give you some examples. I’m not going to like the culture heritage to one by one to evaluation the different kind of criteria. Just give you some examples to illustrate those Criterions and to also to argue that natural heritage also have some cultural meanings. Because this course is culture tourism.
So that is the main focus, It is about the cultural value. The Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch The site provides an outstanding example of the formation of the High Alps, including the most glaciated part of the mountain range and the largest glacier in Eurasia. It features a wide diversity of ecosystems, including succession stages due particularly to the retreat of glaciers resulting from climate change. The site is of outstanding universal value both for its beauty and for the wealth of information. It contains about the formation of mountains and glaciers, as well as ongoing climate changes. It is also invaluable in terms of the ecological and biological processes it illustrates, notably through plan succession.
Its impressive landscape has played an important role in European art, literature, mountaineering and alpine tourism. So that is a cultural value embodied in the natural sites.
Well, actually these sites is based on the criterion seven and eight. And there is a kind of question I have about the criterion seven. So the criterion seven, it is talk about aesthetic value for instant based on Jungfrau-Aletsch The impressive landscape within the property has played an important role in European art, literature, mountaineering and alpine tourism. The area is globally recognised as one of the most spectacular mountain regions to visit and its aesthetics have attracted an international following. So why aesthetic value is in the western system as a natural value. So that is not very make sense in eastern context. So that’s why we are carrying out now is we call the culture nature journey.
And we just want to redefine the integration of the nature and culture. And some of the asset value probably belongs to the cultural value.
And you know, one of the city I want to stress is Interlaken. It is important and well- known tourist destination. One of this sight I want to stress is those two beautiful images. It is a town called Interlaken. It is an important and well-known tourist destination in the region of the Swiss Alps, and the main transport gateway to the mountains and lakes of that region. The Interlaken has one of the cleanest and beautiful lake in Switzerland. It is one of the best place in my tourist experiences. Well, another example I want to show you is Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area These sites has been suffering a terrible earthquake several years ago.
And now it is being, you know, Chinese government put a lot of energy and money and also international help to regenerate the natural resources. And this area Stretching over 72,000 ha in the northern part of Sichuan Province, the jagged Jiuzhaigou valley reaches a height of more than 4,800 meters, thus comprising a series of diverse forest ecosystems. Its superb landscapes are particularly interesting for their series of narrow conic karst land forms and spectacular waterfalls. Some 140 bird species also inhabit the valley, as well as a number of endangered plant and animal species, including the giant panda and the Sichuan takin. And the Jiu Zhaigou value also based on the criteria seven, which is conservation.
Because Jiu Zhaigou is real known for its scenic and aesthetic majesty. Its fairy landscape of numerous lakes, waterfalls, and limestone terraces, with their attractive, clear, mineral-rich waters, set in the spectacular alpine mountains with a highly diverse forest ecosystem, demonstrates remarkable natural beauty. So why those you know natural beauty, because it should be evaluated by people, evaluated by people sense of the aesthetic value. So that is a very controversial for the criterion seven, why it is a natural value. You can imagine that. And that is the one of the questions you can think about in this kind of course.
Well, another example, also origin from china, the Guilin Karst, Guilin is a part of South China Karst, it is one of the world most spectacular example of humid tropical and subtropical Karst landform. It is a serial site spread over the provinces of Guizhou, Guangxi, Yunnan and Chongqing. And Guilin Karst is one of these Karst areas. The site also based on the criteria seven. Guilin, which displays spectacular tower karst and internationally acclaimed Fenglin riverine landscapes. Many poetry describes Guilin for hundreds of years. However, aesthetic value still base on nature criteria. So that is also very controversial about because you know this sort is extremely famous in in china.
And many poetry composes poetry in this site to describe the natural beauty, but the natural beauty become as a Chinese culture. So we think about the criteria seven.
So that is criteria seven, to be achieve, ICOMOS, as I mentioned before, is the agency who evaluates the cultural value about that. Six cultural criteria is based on the assessment and evaluation by the ICOMOS experts, but the four nature criterion and is based on the assessment from ICUN experts.

By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of natural heritage features, formations and related criterions from Dr. Rouran Zhang.

How do we shape the concept of natural heritage? Can the interaction between man and nature be embodied in the natural heritage?

Please feel free to leave a comment in the comments section and let us know your different opinions.

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International Culture and Tourism Management: Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management

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