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Summarizing Ordinal and Nominal Categorical Data with a PivotChart

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In this video, we'll discuss a really important way to analyze categorical data known as cross tabulation. What you wanna do is figure out how several categorical variables affect the different categorical variables. So here's an example. So, people don't really buy station wagons anymore. But suppose you have a bunch of families, yes means they bought a station wagon, no means they didn't. Then the family size is either large or small. These are all categorical. Large family is more than two children, small family is zero to two children then their salaries is either high or low.
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So looking at this data which has no numbers, can we create a table which sort of tells us what causes people to buy station wagons, or what demographics are associated with station wagons. So a pivot table will work out really well with this. Now I should basically put my cursor anywhere inside the data. I can do insert pivot table.
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Okay. And then you can see the series range there is B2 to through D345. Excel picked it out. I don't have to select the range, I can just be inside there. Now I'll do existing let's say right down here. Okay, now how do I want to lay this out? So I wanna know yes or no, did they buy a station wagon? So that'll go in the column field. I wanna count that, so I'll put that in the values field. And then the demographics or the other qualitative variables I'll list in the row field, the order doesn't matter, but I'll do family size and then I'll do salary.
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So now I have a count of how many people fall into each group. For example, large families with high salaries, there's 34 people who did not buy a wagon. Now if you wanna be a positive person, you might want yes on the left. You can click on column labels, sort z to a. Now yes is on the left, not that that matters. Now this breakdown isn't very meaningful, you need a percentage. In other words, in each of those demographic groups, what percentage bought a wagon? That's what's known as cross tabs and we will return to cross tabs in module five when we talk about the Chi squared test for independence.
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So right here if I would go right click and I could show values as percentage of row.
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See now I know what percentage in each group bought the wagon. We'll do this with a graph in a minute but you can see the large families. No matter what their salary, about 70% bought a wagon. The small families, about 5%, no matter what their salaries, bought a wagon. So basically that means that the salary doesn't really matter, it's the family size. And so that's what a cross tabs analysis can show you. Now again, if I want to go in there and go analyze, pivot chart, this one will be absolutely fine. Let's just move this over to the right here.
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Or move it down let's say.
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And basically our pivot chart shows us, okay, the large family is, blue is the percentage that bought. Okay, we can see no matter what the salary, high or low. Lots of people bought, but small families, no matter what the salary, high or low, not many people bought. So we can see clearly here from our cross tabs analysis that basically salary was less important than family size in determining who bought a station wagon. In the next lesson, we'll turn our attention to hierarchical data which can be analyzed in a really neat fashion using Excel 2016's new sunburst and treemap charts.
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Statistics and Data Analysis in Excel

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