How does a family history affect my risk of diabetes?
Genetic risk in type 1 diabetesAccording to Diabetes UK:
‘Although more than 85% of type 1 diabetes occurs in individuals with no previous first degree family history, the risk among first degree relatives is about 15 times higher than in the general population.
- if a mother has Type 1 diabetes, the child’s risk of developing it is about 2–4 per cent
- if a father has the condition, the child’s risk of developing it is about 6–9 per cent
- if both parents have the condition, the child’s risk of developing it is up to 30 per cent
- if a brother or sister develops the condition, the sibling’s risk of developing it is 10 per cent (rising to 10–19 per cent for a non-identical twin and 30–70 per cent for an identical twin).’
Genetic risk in type 2 diabetes
There is a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors in type 2 diabetes. It tends to cluster in families. People with diabetes in the family are 2-6 times more likely to have diabetes than people without diabetes in the family.
- If you have a parent with type 2 diabetes you have a 30% lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes
- If both your parents have type 2 diabetes you have an 80% lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Genetic risk in Monogenic diabetesThe commonest types of monogenic diabetes are characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance with each child of an affected parent having a 1 in 2, or 50% chance of inheriting the affected gene. You’ll find more examples of inheritance in monogenic diabetes next week.
Genomic Medicine: Transforming Patient Care in Diabetes
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