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How Other Cities are Involved in the Safe Operation

In this section, we will see how different cities in China have dealt with the issue of security and new strategies for BEB operations.
Blue electric bus fleet parked in China.

In this section, we will see how different cities in China have dealt with the issue of security and new strategies for Battery Electric Bus (BEB) operations.

Strategies for the safe operation of BEB Management

Recently, it has been suggested that manufacturers of new energy vehicles should have primary responsibility for safety and implementation. Several standards have been published, such as the Safety Requirements for Bus Construction (GB 13094-2017) and the Specifications for Bus Extinguishing (GB 34655-2017), which lays down detailed rules on vehicle structures and fire extinguishing systems, as well as specific technical requirements for certain installations and safety devices for urban public transport vehicles.

Establish a robust mechanism for managing emergencies

Several public transport companies have developed safety management strategies that include establishing a safety and emergency management mechanism, planning the configuration of various safety equipment, and improving the safety monitoring of vehicles and charging stations to improve the safe operation of BEB.

For example, the Shenzhen Bus Group formulated Safety Guidelines for the Fully Electrified Operation of the Shenzhen Bus Group. It developed specific solutions for each bus line in the event of safety-related accidents.

Wide shot of a city skyline while twilight City Skyline. (2018)

Fuzhou Bus Group has formulated the Regulations for the Use and Management of New Energy Buses to specify drivers’ technical requirements for operation and daily maintenance. In addition, Guidelines for the Emergency Disposal of New Energy Buses in the event of a fire and Specific Emergency Plans in the event of a fire when BEBs are in operation, being loaded, or parked.

The Guangzhou Bus Group has also published the BEB Maintenance Code of Practice. This defines the maintenance and inspection requirements for BEBs.

The Group has also developed BEB’s Emergency Response Plans. These plans identify potential areas, hazards, and previous evidence of accidents.

Picture of a road with cars in a city next to a park. Cars on the road. (2022)

In addition, most local public transport companies conduct regular inspections and training programs, such as those in Jinan and Zhengzhou, and organize seasonal inspections and special inspections before significant events and festivals to detect and eliminate hidden risks early on.

Equipped with various unique security features

About the equipment of the vehicle leaving the factory, IP67 or higher protection levels are required for batteries, motors, and electrical control systems; high-voltage cables must be protected with anti-abrasion measures, and connectors must be effectively protected against dust and water to ensure the vehicle safety on highly humid days.

IP67 refers to an Ingress Protection (IP). It is an internationally recognized rating system used to assess the protection level of electronic devices against dust and water. The “6” signifies the device’s resistance to solid particles like dust, while the “7” denotes its ability to withstand water exposure.

Cooling and thermal management systems such as Battery Management Systems (BMSs) must be installed for power batteries to control battery temperature and prevent thermal runaway.

Regarding fire-fighting equipment, the BEBs are equipped with different types of equipment by the local public transport companies. A tubular frame fire extinguisher system, vehicle spray system, battery chamber, and container extinguishers are installed on Shenyang buses.

All Shenzhen BEBs are equipped with automatic fire extinguishers in the battery compartment, and each bus is also equipped with no less than three portable powder extinguishers.

Use an operations monitoring platform to improve security management capabilities.

Operations monitoring platforms can achieve real-time visualization and monitoring of vehicle safety status, early warning, automatic regulation and control, and other functions.

Diagram of the vehicle safety technical measuresClick to expand. Vehicle Safety Technical Measures. PEM Motion (2023)

In Zhengzhou, buses are equipped with numerous safety devices, such as emergency windows, magnet-controlled emergency switches, automatic circuit breakers, driver behavior monitoring, and other safety devices, to form a comprehensive safety monitoring system.

Operations monitoring platforms can achieve real-time visualization and monitoring of vehicle safety status, early warning, automatic regulation and control, and other functions.

Diagram of the Jinan Bus Safety Procedures of Intelligent Precaution and DisposalClick to expand. Jinan Bus Safety Procedures of Intelligent Precaution and Disposal. PEM Motion (2023)

For example, Jinan’s public transport service uses a cell phone app for real-time remote monitoring of vehicles and critical driving safety indicators. It sends alerts of hidden faults or hazards in the form of warnings.

Thanks to onboard diagnostic data (OBD), vehicle availability data, mileage, and statistics on loading behavior can be collected in 15 Chinese cities.


The approach taken by several cities in China to address challenges and transform them into tangible solutions through technology highlights the importance of pragmatic and effective management in implementing such innovations. Inspired by China’s example, governments involved in clean technology are adopting an open approach to implement data-driven platforms to gain insights into Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) behavior and enhance their overall performance.

Subsequently, we will examine the maintenance procedures specific to this type of bus and compare them with other bus models.


​- Li, C., Wu, Z., Li, X., & Mu, K. (2022) Research on Technical System of Battery Electric Buses in China. Retrieved from: Link

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