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Generalisability and limitations of findings


In this step, Dr. Tess Bright (LSHTM) provides an overview of the complex concepts “bias” and “confounding”.

Bias is defined as a tendency towards an unreasonable, or prejudiced, consideration of a question. Bias arises from flawed information or subject selection so that an incorrect association is found. Confounding distorts the true association between the exposure being studied and the disease. When we consider a study’s results, we should always ask if the observed effect could be due to bias.

Again, these can be difficult concepts to grasp, so please ask any questions or share any thoughts below. For those who want to know more, please check the “See Also” section below.

With thanks to Lorna Gibson, Daksha Patel, Sally Parsley – ICEH at LSHTM

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Global Disability: Research and Evidence

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