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Clinical pharmacy services


There are several other clinical pharmacy services (CPS) besides the MTM. Ms Chen will explain the medical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy services.

Key concepts:

There are many types of clinical pharmacy services. Pharmacists also carry out:

  • Medication reconciliation, assessing patients’ medication profile during clinical setting transitions, to ensure non-disrupted, and updated medication therapy.

  • Education, on patients, students, or other health care professionals. This aims to reduce medication errors by raising awareness and promoting general knowledge of medications.

  • Occasionally, pharmacists determine the type of immunization a patient needs and set tracking and reminder programs to ensure the patient receives timely immunization.

Pharmacists also participate in policymaking, contributing to the development and enforcement of guidelines in managed care settings. This expands their impact beyond individual patients, to affect the whole population.

Literature review:

In 2004, a study analyzed the correlation between CPS and positive health outcomes. Amongst the wide spectrum of CPSs, providing drug information, adverse drug reaction management, drug protocol management, medical rounds participation, and admission drug histories, had the most significant impact on the positive health outcomes.

A study in 2007 also revealed CPS can reduce hospital mortality rate. On the surface, providing clinical pharmacy services is very costly, due to the need for additional manpower. However, a study published in 2008 provided evidence that for every $1 invested in clinical pharmacy service, generates $4.81 in reduced over-all costs or other economic benefits. Showing that CPS provides a positive return on investment.

Share and learn:

  • Why do you think it is important to assess the impacts of CPS? Try to take the perspective of different stakeholders (government, patient, hospital etc.).

  • Do you know of other CPS not mentioned in this step?

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Good Pharmacy Practice: Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy Services

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