We like to see all devices will be connected in wireless, not wired. Since you know, if we have lots of devices connected together, as we see, the estimation by 2020, there will be 50 billion devices can be connected together. If all of these devices connected through the wired, you can imagine how mess up it will be. Okay, so wireless will be necessary. This is a fact. But wireless as we know, it uses antenna to emit and to radiate the wave. Okay, so people will worry about the antenna. Say okay, if we have wireless, is there any dangerous? Is it safe for the human being? So we specifically talk about this topic. Do wireless devices post the danger?
Since we use the wireless. Okay, wireless use antenna to emit signals, which is called electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic wave, we call it EM or EMF, electromagnetic field. This is a wave cannot be seen, but it contains energy. It’s a non-ionized radiations, which means it contains lower frequency. Frequency will be less than 3 times 10 to the 15 hertz and lower energy. Since energy is low, okay, so this non-ionized radiation basically will not carry enough energy to ionize, to destroy atoms or moleculars. That’s why non-ionized radiations basically will not hurt people too much. Okay, do you know what is WHO? This is World Health Organization. Not only you worry about the, if the wireless post dangers. WHO do the same.
In 1996, WHO, the organization propose a project to try to find the scientific evidence to see if the wireless hurt people. What will be the possible effects to the health. Okay, this is the project, EMF project, in 1996 issued by the WHO. The frequency exams is from 0 to 300 gigahertz. For all devices in wireless operations, so far, the maximum frequency is 60 gigahertz. Okay, so that means if the conclusion says for all the frequency up to 300 is no harm to people, to the human being. And the current devices, all in wireless, will be no harm to the human being, too. So, this is simple logic, basically.
Okay, the condition is no harm, for the no harm, we have follow some limited recommendation of the transmitted power and the distance by the ICNIRP. This is again, another international organizations. Okay, here I am not going to address the full name of this since it will be go to too much out of this course. But anyway, let’s say if we follow certain limits of the transmitted powers. For any frequency, the device operates in the world, basically will be no harm to the people health. So you don’t have to worry about any cancers for using the wireless devices for a long time.
But if you are too close to a certain high energy radiation devices or if you apply too much power for transmission, there will be the exceptions. Since we have this kind of regulations, all of our devices before on the market has to be examined, and has to pass related EMF regulation. And then, we have something like, some tests like FCC exams, on the back of the devices. It will be a proof, saying this device is basically wirelessly safe for use. Okay so here is two basic ideas for you. So if you are using the wireless devices, keep a proper distance from radiation source, especially base station for cellular systems.
Since the power will be stronger than the cellular phones, for base stations. But if you are far away from the base stations, do not live nearby the base station, basically it will be safe. And also do some precaution like do some shielding. Here is an example. Okay, this is a base station. You see the top, one represents, you see the one port represents one antenna. Here we have ten antennas on top of the tower. There will be lots of radiations emitted, the wireless signal. Okay, then here is another example in the urban area. So this is the roof of a building. You see, again, the antennas. You see the block …ugh, one box.
One box represents one antenna like 3G or 4G or even 3G and 4G combined together. Okay so this is a regular installation of the antenna of the base stations, but we can do more better. Even better that mean we do the shielding. So the previous one has been improved by shielding. So we have some mechanical matter devices to enclose antennas, based on not to affect the emission of the signals. Doing so then the signal will be emitted in certain ways and the signal emitted will be reduced. Okay this is what we mean precautions. Okay so when we use the wireless device, we can do the same thing. That means we do not use the phone too close.
Do not use phone talking for too long. Since once you use the cellular phones near to your ear or your face, for a long time. More or less, will be little bit hurt to your health. If the emission power is strong or too strong. It actually is if your cellular phone is far away from base station, the cellular phone will be automatically increase the transmitting power. Then at that times, then your will be suffer lots of EM fields. So it maybe hurt, maybe hurt. Okay, yea…this is basics for the internet. We hope based on the slides we explained it and you can get some idea about the internet.
How the IOT works, and you know some principles of the sensors will know how the data can be transmitted through the different, the networking or communication technologies so far. This is the purpose, I hope we get some idea already.