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A glossary of terms related to the Sino-Japanese War

A glossary of terms related to the Sino-Japanese War

Below is a glossary of terms relating to Sino-Japanese interactions through rare books.



  • Amida hall: 阿弥陀堂 Houses the principal image statue of Amida Nyorai [1.13]
  • Amidakyō, Amithaba Sutra : 阿弥陀経 one of the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism [1.10]
  • Analects of Confucius: 論語 A record of the sayings of Confucius compiled by his disciples [1.1],[1.18]
  • Asakura (family): 朝倉 warrior clan that became a daimyo family [1.18]
  • Ashikaga (family): 足利 Warrior family that founded the Muromachi shogunate [1.17]
  • Ashikaga Gakkō , Ashikaga School: 足利学校 Ashikaga-Gakkō (Ashikaga School) is Japan’s oldest academic institution. [1.13]
  • azekura architectural style: 校倉造り log-storehouse style; one of the architectural styles of the Nara or the Heian periods [1.8]


  • Biyan Lu : 碧巌録 anthology of Zen koans (teachings and actions of the Zen sect founders) [1.18]
  • Bunroku: 文禄 era in Azuchi-Mooyama preiod (1592-1596). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.19],[1.20]
  • Butterfly binding : 胡蝶装 a traditional bookbinding style [1.14]


  • Cai Lun : 蔡倫 Chinese government official of the Han dynasty [1.6]
  • Cheng Weishi Lun shu ji : 成唯識論述記 commentary of the Discourse on the Perfection of Consciousness-only [1.11]
  • Chiba: 千葉県 A Japanese prefecture located east of Tokyo [1.1]
  • Chōnen : 奝然 monk of the Tōdaiji temple in Nara in the Heian period [1.10]
  • Chōsen-ban : 朝鮮版 Korean editions [1.19]
  • Chunqiu jingchuan jijie : 春秋経伝集解 Spring and Autumn Annals and Zuo Tradition with Collected Commentaries [1.13]
  • Confucian classics: 儒学 study based on classic thought of Confucius [1.13], For more detilas, visit Week 2 [2.5]
  • Constitution in 17 Articles, Seventeen-Article Constitution: 十七条憲法 A constitution issued by Prince Shōtoku in the early 7th c. [1.11]
  • Council of The Five Elders: 五大老 committee of daimyo formed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to rule Japan until his son Hideyori’s coming of age [1.20]
  • the Classic of Filial Piety: 孝経 one of the classic of Confucianism [1.19]


  • Dai-hannya haramitta-kyō: 大般若波羅蜜多経 one of the Mahayana Buddhist sutras [1.11]
  • daimyo : 大名 feudal lords [1.17],[1.18]
  • decisive battle of Sekigahara, the Battle of Sekigahara: 関が原の戦い The biggest battle of the Warring States period of Japan, 1600 [1.20]
  • detchōsō : 粘葉装 one of the traditional binding methods [1.12],[1.14]
  • Deyou: 徳祐 era of the Song dynasty in China (1275-1276) [1.12]
  • dharani: 陀羅尼 a verbal formula believed to have magical force [1.9]
  • Discourse on the Perfection of Consciousness-only: 成唯識論 an important text of the Hossō sect of Buddhism [1.8],[1.11]
  • Dōgen: 道元 (1200-1253) priest, founder of the Soto sect [1.14]
  • Dunhuang: 敦煌 city of Western China that was a major stop on the ancient Silk Road. A huge trove of ancient texts were uncovered here at the beginning of the 20th century. [1.8]


  • Edo: 江戸 period of Japanese history when the country was ruled by the Tokugawa shoguns (1603-1868). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.5],[1.7],[1.19],[1.20]
  • Eisai: 栄西 (1141‐1215)priest and founder of RInzai sect [1.14]
  • Emi no Oshikatsu: 恵美押勝 Led a rebellion against the state in 764 [1.9]
  • Emperor GoYōzei: 後陽成天皇 (1571-1617) the 107th emperor of Japan [1.19]
  • Emperor Kōnin : 光仁天皇 the 49th emperor (r. 770-781) [1.8]
  • Emperor Shōmu : 聖武天皇 (701-756) Japanese emperor [1.7],[1.8]
  • Emperor Taizong: 太宗 Emperor of China (r. 976-997),the second emperor of the Northern Song dynasty [1.10],[1.13]
  • Empress Shōtoku: 称徳天皇 (718-770) Japanese empress (r. 764-770) [1.8],[1.9]
  • encyclopedia: 類書 reference work such as dictionary [1.13]
  • Engakuji: 円覚寺  temple in Kamakura [1.14]
  • Enkōji temple : 円光寺  temple in Fushimi, Kyoto [1.20]
  • Enshu: 円種 monk who travelled to China during the Song dynasty [1.13]
  • Eulhaeja: 乙亥字 (J. Itsugaishi), metal type in Yi Dynasty Korea in 1455 [1.20]


  • Fan Peng : 范徳機 (1272-1330) Chinese poet of the Yuan dynasty [1.15]
  • First-cast Gapinja : 初鑄甲寅字 J. shochū Kōinji, the metal type in use in Yi Dynasty Korea in 1434 [1.19]
  • Five Mountains, Gozan: 五山 five government-sponsored Zen temples in Kyoto and Kamakura [1.14],[1.15],[1.17],[1.18],[1.19]
  • Four Books: 四書 Four important texts of Confucianism: the Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects, and the Mencius [1.19]
  • Fujiwara: 藤原 powerful clan that dominated court life in Heian period [1.7],[1.11]
  • Fujiwara Kōmyōshi: 藤原光明子 (701-760) Empress Kōmyō, spouse of Emperor Shōmu in Nara period [1.7]
  • Fujiwara no Michinaga: 藤原道長 (966-1028) a powerful court noble in the Heian period [1.10]
  • fukurotoji: 袋綴じ traditional binding method in which the sheets are folded “mountain fold” in two, placed on top of each other, and fastened [1.18]
  • Fushimi-ban (Fushimi editions): 伏見版 books printed by the Enkoji temple in Fushimi , Kyoto [1.20]


  • Gapinja : 甲寅字 J. Kōinji, the type used in Yi Dynasty Korea [1.20]
  • Genkō : 元弘 era in Kamakura period (1331-1333). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.13]
  • Genshin: 源信 (942-1017) priest of the Tendai sect [1.12]
  • gigakumen: 伎楽面 masks that were used in ceremonies and rituals [1.8]
  • Gozan-ban, Gozan printed editions: 五山版 printed books by the five Gozan temples [1.14],[1.15],[1.18,[1.17],[1.21]
  • Guwen zhenbao : 古文真宝 Chinese anthology of Tang and Song dynasty writing [1.20]


  • Han Dynasty : 漢 Chinese dynasty (206BC-220 AD) [1.5],[1.6],[1.20]
  • Hanpon: 版本 woodblock printed book [1.10]
  • Hayashi Razan: 林羅山 (1583-1657) Confucian scholar, a. k. a. Dōsyun [1.20]
  • Heian: 平安 period of Japanese history (794-1185). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.1],[1.8],[1.10],[1.11],[1.12]
  • Heiankyo: 平安京 the capital of Japan from 794 to 1868, present-day Kyoto [1.10]
  • Mount Hiei, Enryakuji: 比叡山 the center of Tendai Buddhism [1.12],[1.14]
  • Hōjō family: 北条氏 family of Kamakura-period hereditary regents [1.13],[1.14]
  • Hōjō Sadaaki: 貞顕 (1278-1333) Kamakura-period regent, a.k.a. Kanazawa Sadaaki [1.13]
  • Hōjō Sanetoki : 北条実時 (1224-76) warrior [1.13]
  • Hōjō Tokimune: 北条時宗 (1251-1284) Kamakura-period regent [1.13]
  • Hōjō Tokiyori: 北条時頼 (1227-1263) Kamakura-period regent [1.13]
  • Hōjō Ujimasa: 北条氏政 (1538-1590) warrior [1.13]
  • Hokke gisyo: 法華義疏 Buddihist commentary written by Prince Shōtoku [1.7],[1.10],[1.11]
  • Hokkekyō, Lotus Sutra: 法華経 one of the most important texts of Mahayana Buddhism [1.10]
  • Honchō zokumonzui : 本朝続文粋 Late Selection of Excellent Writing from Our Country, 12th c. [1.13]
  • Hōnen : 法然房源空 (1133-1212) founder of Pure Land sect [1.12]
  • Hōryūji : 法隆寺  temple in Nara; the oldest wooden structure in the world [1.9],[1.11]
  • Hosokawa (family): 細川 family of feudal lords during the Warring States period [1.17],[1.18]
  • Hossō ruirin : 法曹類林 Late-Heian legal compendium [1.13]
  • Hossō sect: 法相宗 one of the sects of Mahayana Buddhism [1.11]
  • Huang Yuan fengya: 皇元風雅 14th c. anthology of Chinese poetry [1.15]
  • Hyakumantō Darani: 百万塔陀羅尼 Dharani Invocations of the One Million Pagodas [1.9],[1.10]


  • Ichijōdani: 一乗谷 location in modern Fukui prefecture [1.18]
  • Imagawa (family): 今川 family of feudal lords during the Warring States period [1.18]
  • inbutsu: 印仏 stamped images of the Buddha [1.9]
  • Ishin Sūden : 以心崇伝 (1569-1633) monk in Rinzai sect [1.20]


  • Jiading: 嘉定 reign of Chinese history (1208-1224) [1.13]
  • Jichū gun’yō: 侍中群要 Compendium of administrative guidelines for courtiers [1.13]
  • Jin : 晋 Chinese dynasty (265-420), Western Jin (265-316), Eastern Jin (317-420) [1.6]
  • Jingde chuandenglu: 景徳伝灯録 Chinese collection of biographies of Zen patriarchs [1.14]
  • Jingo Keiun: 神護景雲 era in Nara period (767-770). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.9]
  • Jōgen: 承元 era in Kamakura period (1207-1210). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.12]
  • Jōji : 貞治 era in Kamakura period (1362-1367). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.15]
  • Jōō and Karoku eras: 貞応嘉禄 Jōō (1222-1223) era and Karoku (1225-1226) era in Kamakura period. See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.11]
  • Joseon dynasty : 朝鮮時代 Korean dynasty that ruled from 1392 to 1897 [1.19]
  • Jūjūshinron : 十住心論 A Treatise on the Ten Stages of the Mind by the 9th c. monk Kūkai [1.12]


  • Kaibao tripitaka : 開宝蔵 the Tripitaka of the Kaibao era (968-976) [1.10]
  • kaigan: 開眼 eye-opening ceremony of the Great Buddha [1.8]
  • Kaiken: 快賢 monk of the Shingon sect [1.12]
  • Kaisen: 界線 lines on paper, border lines between lines of text. You can see an example around 4:43 in this video. [1.11]
  • Kamakura (placename): 鎌倉 city in modern Kanagawa prefecture [1.1],[1.13],[1.14]
  • Kamakura (period): 鎌倉 period of Japanese history when Japan was ruled by a military government (1185-1333). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.1],[1.11],[1.12],[1.13],[1.14],[1.18]
  • Kan’ei : 寛永 era in Edo period (1624-1625). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [1.20]
  • Kan’na: 寛和 era in Heian period (985-987). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.10]
  • kana: 仮名 Japan’s syllabic script, derived from Chinese characters [1.12]
  • Kanazawa library: 金沢文庫 library established in the Kamakura period by the military elite [1.13]
  • Kangakubun: 勧学文 poems for encouraging learning [1.19]
  • Kangōsen: 勘合船 trade ships between China and Japan in Muromachi period; kangō means “official-seal” [1.17]
  • kanji: 漢字 (Ch. hanzi) Chinese characters [1.12]
  • Kanji : 寛治 era in Heian period (1087-1094). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.8]
  • Kanshitsu Genkitsu: 閑室元佶 (1548-1612) monk of the Rinzai sect, a. k. a. Sanyō Genkitu [1.20]
  • Kantō: 関東 eastern district in Japan [1.13]
  • Kasuga editions, Kasuga-ban : 春日版 books printed at the Kofukuji Temple [1.8],[1.11]
  • Kasuga Grand Shrine: 春日大社 the family shrine of the Fujiwara clan in Nara [1.11]
  • Katagi: 形木 wooden printing blocks [1.9]
  • Kegonkyō, Kegongyō : 華厳経 Flower Garland Sutra; one of Mahayana Buddhist sutras [1.8],[1.9],[1.11]
  • Keichō: 慶長 era in Edo period (1596-1615). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [1.19],[1.20]
  • Keiun: 慶雲 era in Asuka period (704-708). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.8]
  • Ken’na : 釼阿 (1261-1338) scholar monk [1.13]
  • Ken’ninji: 建仁寺 Temple in Kyoto [1.1]
  • Kenchō: 建長 era in Kamakura preiod (1249-1256). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.12]
  • Kenchōji : 建長寺  temple in Kamakura [1.14]
  • Kinai: 畿内 the provinces around the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto [1.12],[1.18]
  • King Sejong the Great: 世宗大王 (1397-1450) the fourth king of Yi (Joseon) Dynasty of Korea [1.19]
  • Kinshūdan, Jinxiuduan: 錦繍段 a poetry collection [1.19]
  • Kitano Kyōō-dō Hall : 北野経王堂 a Buddhist hall in Kyoto [1.20]
  • Kiyohara no Noritaka, Kiyohara Kyōryū: 清原教隆   (1199-1265) a professor of Confucian Classics [1.13]
  • Kobun Kōkyō : 古文孝経 Old-Text Classic of Filial Piety [1.12]
  • Kōfukuji: 興福寺 temple of the Fujiwara clan in Nara [1.10],[1.11]
  • Kokanshiren: 虎関師錬 (1278-1346) monk of the Rinzai sect [1.18]
  • kokatsujiban, “ Old” movable type editions: 古活字版 ”Old” movable type editions of early- modern Japan (“old” to differentiate them from modern movable-type editions) [1.20]
  • Kokinwakashū: 古今和歌集 Collection of Waka Old and New, 905 [1.13]
  • Kongōbuji : 金剛峰寺 temple on Mount Kōya [1.12]
  • Kongzi Jiayu : 孔子家語 The Sayings of Confucius’ School [1.20]
  • Mount Kōya, Kōyasan: 高野山 the main center of Shingon Buddhism [1.12]
  • Kuiji: (632-682) founder of Hossō sect [1.11]
  • Kujō : 九条家 family of courtiers [1.14]
  • Kūkai: 空海 (774-835) Shingon sect’s founder [1.12]
  • Kyoto: 京都 the center of politics and culture for most of Japan’s history [1.1],[1.12],[1.13],[1.14],[1.17],[1.18],[1.20]


  • Lady Wei’s script: from the name of a script named after a famous Chinese female calligrapher [1.19]
  • Large Perfection of Wisdom Sutra: 大般若経 An important sutra of the Mahayana tradition of Buddhism [1.11]
  • Later Han dynasty: 後漢 Chinese dynasty (25-220 C.E.) [1.5],[1.6]
  • Lunyu zhushu: 論語註疏 Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Analects [1.13]
  • The Lotus Sutra of the Sublime Law : 妙法蓮華経 the most representative work of Mahayana Buddhism [1.5]


  • Maeda Tsunanori: 前田綱紀 (1643-1724) the fourth Lord of the Kaga domain [1.13]
  • Mahayana: 大乗 A school of Buddhism that emphasizes salvation for all including the lay person [1.5],[1.7],[1.14]
  • Meiji: 明治 period (1868-1911) [1.8]
  • Mengqiu : 蒙求 traditional Chinese text for early education; it was popular in Japan from the Heian onwards [1.19]
  • Midō Kampakuki: 御堂関白記 the diary of the 11th c. court noble Fujiwara Michinaga [1.10]
  • Minamoto no Yoritomo: 源頼朝(1147-1199) leader of the Minamoto warrior clan and founder of the Kamakura shogunate [1.13]
  • Ming : 明 Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) [1.15],[1.17],[1.18]
  • miso: 味噌 fermented soybean paste [1.15]
  • Mugaku Sogen : 無学祖元 (1226-1286) Chinese monk of the Rinzai sect [1.14]
  • Muku jōkō dai daranikyō : 無垢浄光大陀羅尼経 the source text for the dharani in the Hyakumantō Darani [1.9]
  • Muromachi: 室町 period of Japanese history (1392-1573) [1.13],[1.17],[1.18],[1.20]
  • Musashi no kuni: 武蔵国 old province of Japan corresponding to modern Tokyo and Saitama prefecture [1.13]


  • Nanzenji: 南禅寺 Nanzenji Temple, a temple in Kyoto [1.14]
  • Nara ( place ): 奈良 ancient capital of Japan [1.1],[1.10],[1.12],[1.13]
  • Nara ( period ): 奈良 period of Japanese history (710-794). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.1],[1.7],[1.9],[1.11],[1.18]
  • Nichiren sect: 日蓮宗 a sect of Buddhism a. k. a. Hokke sect [1.20]
  • Nihon shoki: 日本書紀 Chronicles of Japan, 720 [1.19]
  • Northern Song-dynasty: 北宋時代 the first part (960-1127) of the Song dynasty [1.10]
  • the Northern and Southern Dynasties: 南北朝時代, period of Chinese history. See 1.3 for the timeline of Chinese history. (439-589) [1.6],[1.7]


  • Ōjōyōshū: 往生要集 Buddhist text written by the monk Gensin [1.12]
  • One Thousand Characters Classic: 千字文 Book used throughout premodern East Asia to teach basic literacy [1.18]
  • orihon, accordion or concertina book : 折本 traditional binding style [1.10],[1.12]
  • Ōuchi (familiy): 大内氏 a daimyo family of medieval Japan [1.17],[1.18]
  • outer border: 匡郭  the border surrounding the text in traditional Chinese printed books [1.14]
  • Oze Hoan: 小瀬 甫庵  (1564-1640) Confucian scholar, physician and scholar of military science [1.19]
  • the Ōnin wars : 応仁 (文明) 乱 (1467-1477) Long and bloody civil war between competing military families [1.17]


  • Prince Shōtoku : 聖徳太子 (574-622) early Japanese statesman and member of the court during the Asuka period [1.7],[1.11]
  • Pure Land sect: 浄土宗 East Asian Buddhist sect popular in Japan from the Heian period onwards [1.12]


  • Qin : 秦 Chinese dynasty (211-206 BCE) [1.6]
  • Qunshu zhiyao : 群書治要 Collected Writings on Important Matters of Government [1.13],[1.20]


  • Rankei Dōryū : 蘭渓道隆 (1213-1278) Chinese zen monk [1.14]
  • Record of Words by the Kurodani Saint : 黒谷上人語灯録 Buddhist text of the Kamakura period [1.12]
  • Rin Gokan : 林五官 Chinese worker of medical, money exchanges, and trasportation with permission of Tokugawa Ieyasu [1.20]
  • Rinsenji: 臨川寺 zen temple in the Saga area of Kyoto [1.15]
  • Rinzai sect : 臨済宗 Zen sect [1.14],[1.18]
  • Rokuhara Tandai: 六波羅探題 a mix between a local magistrate and an envoy of the shogun to the court in Kamakura shogunate [1.13]
  • Ryōsoku-in : 両足院 one of the buildings of the Kenninji temple, Kyoto’s oldest Zen temple [1.1]
  • Ryūsan Tokuken : 竜山 徳見 (1284-1358) Zen monk [1.1]


  • Saga : 嵯峨 area in Kyoto [1.15]
  • Saga-bon (Saga books) : 嵯峨本 general name for books published by Yoshida Soan in the Saga area of Kyoto during the Edo period. [1.20]
  • Saidaiji: 西大寺 the main temple of the Shingon-risshū sect in Nara prefecture [1.11]
  • Sakai: 堺 the modern Osaka area [1.18]
  • San Lue : 三略 Three Strategies of Huang Shigong [1.20]
  • San’yō : 三要 (1548~1612) monk of the Rinzai sect, a. k. a. Kanshitsu Genkitsu [1.20]
  • Sanchū: 三註 a series of texts for early learners [1.19]
  • Sangō shiiki : 三教指帰 Indications on the Three Teaching,794, by Kūkai [1.12]
  • Sanron gengi: 三論玄義 Buddhism text by the Chinese monk Jizang (549-623) [1.11]
  • Satsuma: 薩摩 modern Kagoshima prefecture [1.18]
  • Seireishū : 性霊集 A Collection of Kūkai’s prose and poetry [1,12]
  • sengoku daimyō: 戦国大名 feudal lords of the Warring States period in Japan [1.17]
  • Setsuyōshū: 節用集 Japanese dictionary published in the Muromachi period [1.18]
  • Shakyō: 写経 hand-copied sutra as well the act of copying a sutra [1.10]
  • Shangshu zhengyi : 尚書正義 Correct Meaning of the Classic of Documents [1.13]
  • Shijing: 詩経 China’s oldest poetry anthology [1.5]
  • Shijo: 詩序 Poetry Preface by the early Tang literatus Wang Bo (649-676) [1.8]
  • Shimazu : 島津 a daimyo family [1.18]
  • Shingon sect: 真言宗 one of the main Buddhist sects in Japan; founded by Kūkai [1.12]
  • Shingon-risshū sect : 真言律宗 One of the risshū sects, based on the doctrines of the Shingon sect. [1.13]
  • Shinkai: 審海 abbot of Shōmyōji temple [1.13]
  • Shitai senbun shohō (Shitai senjimon shohō): 四体千文書法 The One Thousand Character Classic in Four Calligraphic Styles [1.18]
  • Shōgo (Holy Words) archive : 聖語蔵 one of the storehouses of the Sonshōin temple [1.8]
  • shogun : 将軍 plenipotentiary commander [1.13],[1.20]
  • shogunate: 幕府 the samurai-led government that ruled Japan from 1185 to 1868. [1.13],[1.17]
  • Shōmyōji : 称名寺 temple linked with the Kanazawa library [1.13]
  • Shōsen: 承詮 abbot of Enryakuji temple [1.12]
  • Shōsōin: 正倉院  Storehouse of the Tōdaiji temple [1.8]
  • Shōsōin documents: 正倉院文書 A large trove of administrative documents and temple documents relating to the “Office of Sutra Copying” housed in the ‘Central Storehouse’ of the Shōsōin [1.8]
  • Shūbun inryaku: 聚分韻略 Chinese rhyming dictionary [1.18]
  • Shūzon: 宗存  monk of the Tendai sect [1.20]
  • Song: 宋 Chinese dynasty (960-1279) [1.10],[1.12],[1.13],[1.14]
  • Sonshōin: 尊勝院  Temple in the Tōdaiji temple complex [1.8]
  • Southern and Northern Courts period, Nanboku-chō periods, Northern and Southern Courts period: 南北朝時代 period of Japanese history (1336-1392). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.14],[1.15]
  • Southern Song : 南宋 (1127-1279) latter part of the Song dynasty in China [1.14]
  • soy sauce: 醤油  liquid seasoning made by fermenting soybeans and wheat. [1.15]
  • Suí dynasty : 隋 Chinese dynasty (581-618) [1.7],[1.8],[1.9]
  • Sunpu: 駿府 capital of the Suruga province (modern Shizuoka prefecture) [1.18]
  • Surigyō, printed sutras: 摺経 sutras printed by temples for not-for-profit purposes [1.10]
  • Suruga-ban (Suruga editions) : 駿河版 general term for the metal type books published by order of Tokugawa Ieyasu [1.20]


  • Taiping Yulan : 太平御覧 Imperial Reader of the Taiping era in China. [1.13]
  • Tale of Genji : 源氏物語 (J. Genji monogatari) Prose romance written by Murasaki Shikibu in the early 11th c. [1.13]
  • Tales of Ise : 伊勢物語 a tenth-century collection of short tales with waka poems [1.20]
  • Tamakiharu: たまきはる Fleeting is Life [1.13]
  • Tan’ei: 湛睿 (1271-1347) monk-scholar [1.13]
  • Táng : 唐 (618-907) Chinese dynasty [1.7],[1.8],[1.13],[1.14],[1.19],[1.20]
  • Tempyō: 天平 era in Nara period (729-749).See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.7]
  • Tendai sect : 天台宗 one of main sects Mahayana Buddhism [1.12],[1.20]
  • Tenmon : 天文 era in Muromachi period (1532-1555). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.18]
  • Tenryūji: 天龍寺 temple in Kyoto [1.15]
  • Tenryūji ships: 天龍寺船 official trading vessels of the Muromachi shogunate, dispatched to Yuan Dynasty to raise funds to build the Tenryuji temple [1.17]
  • Tenshō: 天正 era in Azuhchi-Momoyama period (1573-1593).See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.18]
  • Mount Tiantai: 天台山 one of the three major holy mountains of China [1.10]
  • Three Great Works of the Lotus: 法華三大部 A traditional name for the Great Concentration and Insight, the Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra ,and the Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra [1.12]
  • Tōdaiji : 東大寺 important temple in Nara prefecture [1.8],[1.9],[1.11]
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu: 徳川家康 (1543-1616) the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan [1.13],[1.19],[1.20]
  • Tokyo: 東京 the present capital of Japan (formerly called Edo) [1.1]
  • Tongjian jishi benmo : 通鑑紀事本末 Chinese historical work [1.14]
  • Tōshōdaiji: 唐招提寺 temple in Nara [1.11]
  • Toyotomi Hidetsugu: 豊臣秀次 (1568-1595) the second senior regent of the Toyotomi clan [1.13]
  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi: 豊臣秀吉 (1537-1598) warrior leader and senior regent to the emperor in the late 16th c. [1.19]
  • Tsurezuregusa : 徒然草 Essays in Idleness. A popular work by Yoshida Kenko (1283-1352) [1.20]
  • Tuzhu bencao : 図註本草 key text of pharmacy covering plant, animal, and mineral remedies [1.13]


  • Uesugi Norizane: 上杉憲実 (1410-1466) warlord who held a number of high government posts during the Muromachi shogunate [1.13]


  • Vinaya in Four Parts : 四分律 Text giving the rules of monastic life for Buddhist practitioners [1.7],[1.8]


  • Waitai miyaofang: 外臺秘要方 Tang-era Chinese medical treatise [1.13]
  • Wang Bo : 王勃 (649-676) early Tang literatus [1.8]
  • Warring States period: 戦国時代 (中国) period of Chinese history (403-221 BCE). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.6]
  • Warring States, era of civil war in Japan: 戦国時代 (日本) (J. sengoku jidai) , from late 15th c. (beginning in 1467 when the Ōnin wars started or 1493 when Meiō Coup happened) to late 16th c. (end in 1587 when Sobujirei (peace edict) by Toyotomi Hideyoshi or 1590, the end of Odawara war). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history. [1.17]
  • wayō: 和様, Japanese-style [1.11]


  • Xiaozong : 孝宗 emperor Xiaozong (r. 1162-1189) [1.13]
  • Xuanzang: 玄奘三蔵  (602-664) Chinese monk [1.11]


  • Yamaguchi: 山口 prefecture in Japan [1.18]
  • Yamato: ヤマト ancient name of Japan [1.7]
  • Yishu Daquan: 医書大全 Ming-era Chinese medical text [1.18]
  • Yoshida Soan: 吉田素庵 (1571-1632) wealthy merchant and Confucian scholar [1.20]
  • Yuan: 元  Chinese dynasty (1271-1368) [1.14],[1.15],[1.17]
  • Yueyilun: 楽毅論 Essay on General Yue Yi [1.8]


  • Zen: 禅 one of the Mahayana Buddhist sects [1.1],[1.12],[1.13],[1.14],[1.15],[1.17],[1.18],[1.19],[1.20]
  • Zetian wenzi: 則天文字 a new calligraphic style introduced by the Chinese Empress Wu Zetian (624-705) [1.8]
  • Zhenguan zhengyao : 貞観政要 Essentials of Politics from the Zhenguan era in China.[1.20]
  • Zhiyi: 智顗 Tendai Sect founder [1.12]
  • Zhou: 周 Chinese dynasty (1046-256B.C.E.) [1.6]
  • Zhu Yuanzhang : 朱元璋 (1328-1398) founder of Chinese Ming dynasty [1.15]
  • Zōzoku kaitsū inpu gungyoku: 増続会通韻府郡玉 dictionary published by the printer-bookseller, Tanaka Chōzaemon [1.20]
© Keio University
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Sino-Japanese Interactions Through Rare Books

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