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Types of data

What data types might you see in a features matrix?
An image of a green leaf on a white background, a table showing numerical data, and a set of text labels of types of flowers.
What data types might you see in a features matrix?

The different columns in a features matrix can be any of a number of different data types, including the following:

  • a numerical value, e.g.:
    • the area of a leaf
    • a temperature recording
    • a whole number (or integer), possibly constrained within some range, eg:
      • a count of the number of leaves on a plant
      • the grayscale intensity of a specific image pixel (0-255 for an 8-bit image)
  • simple text data or strings, e.g. a name of a person, place or thing
  • a categorical value (can be recorded as a string or an integer), e.g.:
    • a plant species and/or genotype
    • an experiment number
    • a healthy or diseased label
  • a date or a time – often referred to as a datetime – this could be:
    • a fixed point in time, often called a time stamp (e.g. 11:06 on 19th July 2022)
    • a fixed specific period of time such as a year or a month or a day, often called a time interval (e.g. July, or the year 2022, or the day of 19th July)
    • a measured amount of time, often called a time delta (e.g. 13 days, or 14.6 hours, or 285 minutes). For example, number of days since sowing.
  • a true or false value or yes / no value, a.k.a a Boolean. E.g. was some experimental treatment applied or not?

Numerical data can be whole numbers which are referred to as integers, or numbers with a decimal point, referred to as floating point numbers or floats.

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Machine Learning for Image Data

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