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Food authenticity

Food authenticity
The second method is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. NMR( Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)is a robust quantitative analytical technique, it also has proper tools for identification of compounds. The main advantage of NMR is that it does not require complicated sample preparation or separation of components prior to the actual analysis, and the determination of very different chemical species can be performed in a single experiment. NMR spectroscopy can make an important contribution to the authenticity testing of honey. One of the main adulteration issues encountered in honey is the presence of exogenous sugar, either from deliberate addition to honey of a cheaper sugar source or from the use of sugar for bee feeding during the production season.
Different NMR methodologies have been proposed to reveal these types of adulteration. Among them, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy has been widely used for validation of botanical origin of monofloral honeys. Often unique biomarkers are present in specific plants. Therefore, using this methodology, a number of studies devoted to discovery of biomarkers linked to botanical origin have been undertaken. The next case is olive oil. NMR spectroscopy can make an important contribution to testing olive oil authenticity and quality and confirming the geographical origin of a sample. An important aspect of this methodology is that it allows the sample to be analyzed without any chemical operation.
In the case of olive oil, one of the main adulterations is the addition of low-grade oils of different botanical origin such as seed oil or refined olive oils. Although another important issue is confirmation of the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils. High-resolution NMR together with a suitable statistical approach constitutes a powerful tool for the geographical characterization of olive oils on international, national, and regional scales. Robust databases and statistical models have been created producing unique capabilities with which to define the geographical origin of olive oils. The next method is Mass spectrometry. In the last few years, advances in mass spectrometry have led to the development of novel methods suitable in food authenticity and adulteration areas.
In either an untargeted manner or by targeting specific compounds. As the figure shows, several MS-based approaches exist for the analysis of food. These omics-based methods are moving toward maximum collection of information on sample composition in comparison to previous approaches that focused on a single or limited number of markers. Food authenticity detection in the seafood. Bottom-up approaches are usually used for matrices such as fish and shellfish. Species-specific peptides can be used as proteomics markers for seafood authentication in addition to identification of species of origin in processed products. This is particularly important when the head has been removed or the muscle tissues have been processed. Another test is milk.
Substitution of milk by lower-cost milk and the undeclared use of milk from different species for the production of traditional cheeses are frequent practices in the dairy industry. To detect such practices, proteomics is an important tool because whey proteins can be used as biomarkers. Adulteration in milk can be identified by MALDI TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry. The next message is Stable isotope Ratio Analysis called SIRA. Stable isotope analysis is a technique which can detect adulteration or mislabeling of premium and protected foods. The major advantage of this methodology is its ability to distinguish substances that are chemically identical. Looking at the unique isotope signature can accurately determine the true origin of a food stuff.
Stable isotope ratio analysis represents one of the most well-established and acknowledged methods for authenticity testing. Today, SIRA is, for example, routinely used for verifying the authenticity of olive oil, honey, meat, fruit juices, wine, and etc.

Food adulteration has become the basic of food industry, the quality of food adulteration becomes important issue. Report of fraud food adulteration is a challenge, because most food adulteration may be unknown or too complex. Food authenticity is one of the research approaches in this field.

In this video, Prof. Chuang will introduce some major methodologies to be used in food authenticity.

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Introduction to Nutrition and Food Safety

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