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Introduction: Ensuring Pathogen Free Food

The importance of implementing effective biosecurity strategies to safeguard food value chains on a global level is highlighted.
10.3
Food for human consumption, unprocessed, partially processed, or processed food, must be subjected to the necessary hygiene rules during production, processing, storage, distribution, and preparation. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in order to prevent food-induced illnesses which may cause from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to life-threatening human health conditions. The contamination of food represents a major concern for food safety because of the emergence of new pathogens, based on the ability of microorganisms to adapt and change, but also because of changing modes of food production, preservation, and packaging that can result in altered food safety hazards.
59.8
Among the infections are food-borne diseases, which result from consuming drinking water and products of animal origin contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, many of which are zoonotic. The European Food Safety Authority defines zoonosis as “An infection or disease that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, for instance by consuming contaminated foodstuffs or through contact with infected animals.” Earlier studies have estimated that more than 60% of infectious diseases in humans come from pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals.
101.9
Food-borne zoonotic diseases are infections and diseases that are naturally transmissible between animals and humans through contaminated foodstuff; for that reason, it is essential to manage the implementation of good agricultural and handling practices, as well as educational programs. Researchers around the world indicate that the majority of the zoonotic disease cases are related to animals bred for food purposes. Around the world and by continents, there are different governmental, private and research organizations that are monitoring the emergence of food-borne diseases. Nowadays, it is essential to have in-depth knowledge about potential hazards and biosecurity aspects associated with food safety. Therefore, a major policy priority worldwide is the promotion of a high-level of food safety in order to reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases.
157.7
In order to reduce the activity of microorganisms, bacteria, mold, yeast, whether pathogenic or spoiling, preservation is necessary. Food preservation prolongs the life of food by avoiding food waste and maintaining nutritional value. Preservation makes food available in off seasons, saving time in procurement. The main principle of preservation maintenance of asepsis is using methods that have bacteriostatic or bactericide effects in contaminant bacteria. Bacteriostatic methods including refrigeration, dehydration, glazing, salting, and adding of some chemicals, while bactericidal methods comprise heating, irradiation, smoking, and canning.
204.7
Traditional food preservation techniques, include heating, freezing, fermentation, drying, salting, and so on. Or using antimicrobial agents integrated either directly into food particles or incorporated into a polymer film as an anti-microbial packaging system.
223.7
Storage at refrigeration temperatures may result in unsatisfactory reduction of pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica, but inclusion of a maturation period, fermented sausages, above refrigeration temperatures may increase the safety of non-heat treated food. Traditional techniques can preserve food products, but re-contamination may occur. Novel anti-microbial packaging systems can suppress the activities of targeted microorganisms that are contaminating food. Active antimicrobial packaging is used as a system that modifies the environment inside the food package in order to maintain microbial safety, enhancing extension of shelf life and sensory qualities. Having control of possible risks associated with microbial hazards on foodstuffs is a priority. Consequently, technology and managerial control activities are crucial.
283.3
For this reason, it is extremely relevant to adopt quality systems through food production chains, to prevent damage to public and animal health and the environment. Furthermore, the roles of the legislation systems also have great significance in all countries, which implies the availability of specific standards for biological, physical, and chemical risks. Another aspect focuses on the need for networking to spread information and staff training at local, regional, national, and international bases for the application and operation of proposals with hazard and risk principles to guarantee food safety. Moreover, it is important to implement effective biosecurity strategies to safeguard the food value chains on a global level.
331.6
A global perspective into biosecurity policies and approaches to reduce the risks and increase the benefits of international trade and globalization is required.
Food for human consumption, unprocessed, partially processed, or processed food, must be subjected to the necessary hygiene rules during production, processing, storage, distribution, and preparation.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in order to prevent food-induced illnesses, which may cause from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to life-threatening human health conditions. The contamination of foods represents a major concern for food safety because of the emergence of new pathogens based on the ability of microorganisms to adapt and change, and also because of changing modes of food production, preservation, and packaging that can result in altered food safety hazards.
Nowadays, it is essential to have in-depth knowledge about potential hazards and biosecurity aspects associated with food safety. Therefore, a major policy priority worldwide is the promotion of a high level of food safety, in order to reduce the incidence of foodborne diseases.
In order to reduce the activity of microorganisms (bacteria, mould, yeast, etc.), weather pathogenic or spoiling, preservation is necessary. Food preservation prolongs the life of food by avoiding food waste and maintaining nutritional value. Preservation makes food available in off seasons, saving time in procurement. The main principle of preservation maintenance of asepsis (the absence of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms) is using methods that have bacteriostatic or bactericide effects on contaminant bacteria.
Moreover, it is important to implement effective biosecurity strategies to safeguard food value chains on a global level. A global perspective into biosecurity policies and approaches to reduce the risks and increase the benefits of international trade and globalizations is required.
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Farm to Fork: Sustainable Food Production in a Changing Environment

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