Tracey Farragher

Tracey Farragher

I am Lecturer in Public Health Epidemiology at the University of Leeds. For more information see:

Location The University of Leeds


  • You can see the differences in life expectancy even in areas next to each other.

    These maps are actually used in Leeds and across the UK to target health and social services and to monitor changes.

  • The Marmot Review Policy objectives are aspirational but we do have examples of them being incorporated into government policies. 'Sure Start' was developed with reference to the evidence used in the Marmot report, further information can be found here

    It is interesting to see your discussions on the tension between...

  • Thanks Geraldine - I'm still looking through comments so please continue to contribute

  • This is such an important issue and you have both talked about the various issues related to obesity. You will see in the next week how we try to look at all the factors together but you might be interested in a term known as 'obesogenic environment' which proposes how the environment contributes to obesity e.g. external factors, such as distance to a grocery...

  • Lovely examples of using Bradford Hill to show that there is evidence to show that smoking causes cancer. You've also thought about the social and political issues related to smoking too - as you will see in the next week these are important to understand how we change behaviour.

  • I'd agree with Johannes - you will see in the next steps how we start to think about causative - we don't just use one piece of evidence

  • Interesting thoughts about the control group - I would say its those not supplied by the pump.

  • You've pinched my gag I use in lectures! ;)

  • I can completely understand why you would prefer multiple choice but some of these questions and answers are too complex to make into multiple choice. We hope by making the Q&A long form we can provide more background to the concepts.

  • If we look back at the cancer and COPD examples you investigated in the previous step:
    - The world map of cancer incidence is an example of the place triad
    - The COPD QOF prevalence is also an example of the place triad
    - The age-standardised mortality rates by 3 broad disease groups is an example of the time triad.
    Its great to see you all use these...

  • Thanks everyone - nice to see the discussions about when you use incidence (new cases) and prevalence (burden) and the different scenarios when these can be used.

  • really interesting discussion about life expectancy and healthy life expectancy and the potential impact on retirement age.
    We see bigger socioeconomic differences in health life expectancy in the UK than just life expectancy. So while we are living longer not necessarily well enough to work longer particularly those in lower socioeconomic groups?

  • In my lectures here at Leeds I use the UAE pyramid! It provide an stark example of the impact social and cultural factors on a population and consequences for the future - birth rates for example.

  • Thanks everyone. There were a numbers of discussions about migration and how complex an issue this is. When the Kings Fund (a health policy organisation in the UK) reviewed the impact of immigration on the NHS in 2015, they found a complex picture of benefits and negatives that might surprise you. It can be found here...

  • Thanks for the question Susanne - we want to reach zero population growth so that we will hopefully have a sustainable system. Now this is reliant on other issues (that you will see in week two) such as inequality of resources but ideal is to first get to zero population growth with population that sustains itself. hope that helps.

  • Well done everyone for the interesting data you have found and that you are thinking critically about the various information. Also interesting to see a discussion about the differing effectiveness of different policies.

  • Interesting comments - something to think about when thinking about reasons for any changes When thinking about specific policies or factors you have to remember how long does a particular disease takes to develop could risk factors happen many years before a disease presents itself?

  • You have started to think about the reasons behind the demographics which is one of the uses of them when understanding a populations health. As you will see in the next exercises by understanding why a population changes we can understand factors that drive health. We can also use this information to plan social and health services.

  • So glad most of you found the exercise interesting and informative - it is always surprising what we think isn't always reality!
    When I did the original test from the survey I didn't get everything correct either so we all have our misconceptions. A few of you mentioned that this might be as a result of what is emphasised in the media which will play a role...

  • Great to see such a wide range of people - great to get different perspectives in our discussions

  • It's really interesting to see a number of you mention lifestyle, be that diet, exercise, smoking, drugs, sleep. Can you think of factors that might drive people's lifestyle choices?