Dr Shibu Chacko MBE

Dr Shibu Chacko MBE

Specialist Nurse in Organ Donation (SNOD)
NHS Blood and Transplant UK.

Location London


  • I am keen to help students to find their best course in the UK

  • Dr Shibu Chacko MBE made a comment

    Hello I am a Consultant from UK

  • @LornaH-M Organ transplants are not carried out purely on the basis of blood group matching alone; it is a complex matching process using tissue typing and HLA compatibility as well. All these matches have to be in place prior to proceeding with a transplant.

  • @DzifaTorkornoo
    According to the NHSBT figures, common blood groups among the UK population are as below.
    O positive: 35%
    O negative: 13%
    A positive: 30%
    A negative: 8%
    B positive: 8%
    B negative: 2%
    AB positive: 2%
    AB negative: 1%
    Data accurate at December 2018. Percentage figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number.
    Blood groups - O Rh...

  • In the UK there is a high proportion of people from these ethnic backgrounds developing high blood pressure, diabetes and certain forms of hepatitis making them more likely to need a transplant at some point in their lives. Blood and tissue types need to be a match for the transplant to be a success and people from the same ethnic group are more likely to be...

  • Testing for rabies is not a usual investigation carried out in the UK; but the nature and types of investigations needed are always decided based on the medical, social and travel history assessment during the donor characterisation process by following the national guidelines.

  • @nicolasmith Thank you for your feedback, please feel free to download and save the materials for future reference. Hope you will enjoy the second week too.

  • @JoleneGalbreath Thank you for your feedback, please feel free to download and save the materials for future reference. Hope you will enjoy the second week too.

  • @EmilyJ Currently, England has an opt-in system to sign up to the ODR, but is moving to an opt out system from Spring 2020. More information can be found on the following link.

  • @SharonCastellanos The upper age limit for donors varies among different transplant organisations in various countries. In the UK, 85 years is the upper age limit for potential donors. The council of Europe document attached in this section will provide you an insight into the practices and standards among the various EU countries.

  • Bone marrow / stem cell can/only be donated by living donors after matching a donor and the potential recipient. The stem cells are separated from the donors blood using a cell-separator machine without the need for a general anaesthetic.

  • Welcome @AlisonBlake-Reed to the course. Hope the learning will help you to better support the organ retrieval’s in future.

  • Welcome @MohammadShabbir to the course. Hope you will enjoy learning with us.

  • @TEMITAYOFASUYI The recipient of an organ transplantation can donate any of their organs for transplantation after their death except the one/s they have received.

  • @brendanO'Neill Welcome to the course.

  • A small bowel transplant may be considered for people with bowel failure who develop complications from total parenteral nutrition (TPN), or if TPN isn't possible. A small bowel (intestinal) transplant is an operation to replace a diseased or shortened small bowel with a healthy bowel from a donor.
    It's a complicated and highly specialised operation that's...

  • @JoelAllotey Thank you for sharing the story

  • @philippaparkinson Currently anyone upto the age of 85 can be considered as an organ donor in the UK, if that patient dies in circumstances where organ donation is possible. This will be explained in detail on week 2. Also organ matching is performed based on several factors such as HLA typing, donor organ function, microbiology screening, donor size etc in...

  • In India, organ donation is allowed among patients who are not directly related, but the practices and guidelines may vary in various states. For example, the organ donation and transplantation activities are strictly monitored and coordinated by the department of health in Kerala who has set out strict guidelines on brain stem death testing, retrieval and...

  • Skin donation is considered as tissue donation and it is normally used to help patients with burn injuries. The donated skin is retrieved form deceased human donors only.

  • The corneal donation is not carried out in the theatre and is performed by experts in the mortuary within 24-48 hours of death. The corneal donation doesn't leave any marks or bruises as well.

  • Coroners are independent judicial officers who enquire into those deaths reported to him or her. It is the Coroner’s duty to find out the medical cause of the death, if it is unknown, and to enquire about the cause of it if it was due to violence or otherwise appears to be unnatural. There are a number of occasions when a death will need to be reported to the...

  • @MilercyOliverosFonseca The link is working now. Thank you

  • You are welcome @YokoKawazoe

  • @YvonneNicolson Maximum 4 hours from the withdrawal of treatment. Thanks

  • @SamanthaMoore Thank you for sharing your experience. Could you please share a bit more about your experience as I am very keen to know why you felt as an unpleasant procedure even though it is a non invasive and straightforward procedure? Is it the emotional aspect you found it hard?

  • @MarB Thank you for all your comments.
    Please feel free to post the hyperlinks of the research articles and evidences you have quoted in your comments here rather than just the names of authors. It will be hard for the learners to search for an evidence or article with just the authors name.

    For example, a link to management of heartbeating brain...

  • Dear learners from all around the globe,

    Thank you all for your comments and participation in the course discussions and we the course leaders really enjoyed it from the beginning. This course is designed following all the accepted guidelines and protocols in the UK and is mainly aimed at healthcare professionals with an interest in Organ Donation. We have...

  • @TedLambert Let me please reiterate - organ donation is only facilitated from eligible patients who are declared DEAD either by following the neurological criteria or by the cardio respiratory criteria. So a dead person doesn’t require any anaesthetic drugs and this doesn’t have any impact on the quality of the organs. The quality of the Organ depends on the...

  • @BarbaraK-S Agree with you. First of all the AMU is not the place for organ retrieval; this has to be done in a sterile theatre. Secondly, AMU doesn't have the facilities or expertise to manage a brain-dead patient on multiple infusions on a ventilator - this is only possible in an ICU. I also felt that the story is far from true.

  • @MayaVio maybe this will be an area which will develop in the future!

  • @MarB
    1. "whoever thinks of turning off the ventilator for several minutes" - During apnoea testing, the patient is disconnected from the ventilator for 5 minutes to check whether the patient can initiate a breath with the rise in CO2 levels. During this period, the patient is attached to an oxygen source to maintain the oxygen levels and is...

  • @MarB The research on organ donation and transplantation is evolving rapidly with new technologies on preservation and transplantation. A dead body is never electively intubated and attached to a ventilator for the purpose of donation. Organ donation is only considered if a patient becomes brainstem dead on a ventilator. Donation by cardiorespiratory...

  • @MarB
    6. "don't hear about all the complications, the shelf life of organs" - The complications are well communicated to all the potential recipients prior to going on the transplant waiting list and are well aware of it. The transplantation is always risky, but it will bring quality to the life of the recipients, at least for a number of years,...

  • @MarB
    1. "When you travel you are under the law of that country in this case and when not registered there, you are a donor" - Certainly NOT the case in UK for Organ Donation - Please refer to the Human Tissue Act and Welsh Legislation before causing confusion among other learners - The law is only applicable for ordinary residents - Visitors are...

  • @LucyAlford @NiculinaBica Following the donation, the patients body is washed and appropriate clothing is put on. Sometime family members also wanted to be part of this process. If the patients body is going for post mortem, the coroner usually instructs us to leave all the lines, drains, tubes etc. in place following the donation. As a registered medical...

  • @LucyAlford The theatre staff members are always very helpful to complete the last offices for the patient, even though this is not something they do on a day to day basis. Bed pressures with in ITU are always understandable!

  • @stellashackle Following the minimum period of observation and the clear evidence of irreversible brain injury, the clinical tests for brain stem death declaration are performed. The tests are done by two doctors - one must be a Consultant and second doctor must be some with 5 years post registration experiences.

    This is not difficult in UK standards as...

  • @stellashackle The head elevation at 30 degrees is maintained for all patients to reduce the possibility of aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions and subsequent development of aspiration / ventilator associated pneumonia which may prevent the potential donor from donating his / her lungs.

  • @MarB Thank you for your comment and the information on systems practiced in other countries.

  • @MarB Thank you for your comments. This course is designed based on the guidelines published by the UK Intensive Care Society, Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, Royal college of physicians, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare, Royal College of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of intensive care Medicine, The National Organ...