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This article outlines how the TPACK model provides a framework for the teacher knowledge required to effectively integrate technology in learning.
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TPACK stands for Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge.

TPACK outlines the knowledge teachers require to deliver technology effectively. This is often represented in a Venn Diagram as you can see below.

TPACK Diagram. Three circles overlap in a venn diagram, which is itself surrounded by a purple dotted-line circle. The dotted-line is labelled 'Contexts'. Going clockwise, the three circles in the venn diagram are labelled: 1) Technological Knowledge (TK); 2) Content Knowledge (CK); and 3) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK). In the overlap between TK AND CK is TCK: Technological Content Knowledge. In the overlap between CK and PK is PCK: Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In the overlap between PK and TK is TPK: Technological Pedagogical Knowledge. Finally, in the centre where all three circles overlap, is TPACK: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge.

Figure 1: Koehler & Mishra (2009) The TPACK framework and its knowledge components

Technology knowledge (TK)

TK focuses on the skills and competencies required to use technology in teaching which include: having the confidence to use IT in your teaching and integrating the use of IT into your units. modules and lessons. TK also requires that a teacher stays up-to-date with the latest technologies and applies these in the learning environment. (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).

Pedagogical knowledge (PK)

PK focuses on the methods of teaching and learning including how learners expect to learn, managing learner groups, delivering student-centered learning, and planning learning to meet both curriculum and learning outcomes. It also involves knowing how to use technology to scaffold and assess your learners. (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).

Content knowledge (CK)

CK focuses on the teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter to be taught, including concepts, theories, ideas, facts, and curriculum content appropriate to the students.

TPACK therefore is:

In the diagram above, you will see how TPACK occurs at the intersection of the three areas, as the point of integration for technology and learning. TPACK requires an understanding of IT in all three knowledge domains, plus how IT can enhance teaching and support student learning. This includes understanding how teaching and learning changes when particular technologies are used in certain ways and how effective PK will guide the selection of appropriate technologies to support learning.

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