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A unique form of hate or another form of xenophobia?

A unique form of hate or another form of xenophobia?

Prof. Paula Fredriksen, Prof. John G. Gager

Should anti-Jewish expressions in the Greco-Roman world be viewed as a unique form of hatred or should they be perceived as one of the various forms of xenophobia that existed during this period?

For additional visual materials as well as relevant quotations please see “downloads” below.


  • Gager, John G., The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983).‏

  • Gruen, Erich S., Diaspora: Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans (Cambridge M.A.: Harvard University Press, 2002).

  • Isaac, Benjamin, Empire and Ideology in the Graeco-Roman World: Selected Papers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), pp. 285 – 305.

  • Schäfer, Peter, Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge M.A.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

  • Schwartz, Daniel R., “Antisemitism and Other-isms in the Greco-Roman World,” in Robert Wistrich, ed., Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism and Xenophobia (Amsterdam: Published for the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, by Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999), pp. 73 – 87.

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Antisemitism: From Its Origins to the Present

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