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The integration of Jews into French society

The integration of Jews into French society

Prof. Pierre Nora

France was the first state to grant its Jews emancipation in 1791. During the 19th century, the Jews of France became an integral factor in all parts of French society .


  • Birnbaum, Pierre, Jewish Destinies: Citizenship, State, and Community in Modern France, trans. by Arthur Goldhammer (New York : Hill and Wang, 2000).

  • Hyman, Paula E., The Jews of Modern France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

  • Nora, Pierre, Realms of Memory, 3 vols. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996-1998).

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