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The loss of dominance

The loss of dominance

Prof. Meir Litvak

This increasing foreign political and cultural presence, together with the geopolitical weakness of the Muslim world at the time, created a sense of deep crisis among Muslims in the 19th century.

How did the “loss of dominance” affect the attitudes toward minorities in the Arab and Islamic sphere?


  • Lewis, Bernard, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (New York: W. W. Norton, 1986).

  • Lewis, Bernard, What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

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