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Introducing simple directional complements

In this video, Dr Li will introduce simple directional complements.
Xīxi, kuài shànglai, wǒmen yào shàngkè le. Qítā de tóngxué dōu shànglai le ma ehái chà Lǐ Míng méiyǒu lái.
Here lái is placed after the verb shàng as a complement. And it shows the direction of shàng. It’s called simple directional complement. jiǎndān qūxiàng bǔyǔ.
If the action moves towards the speaker, we use lái. And if the action moves away from the speaker, we use qù. First, let’s look at verb plus lái. Here, the action moves towards the speaker. Some examples are shànglai xiàlai jìnlai chūlai huílai guòlai .
shànglai: Tā shànglai le.
xiàlai: Wǒ xiàlai le.
jìnlai, Bàba jìnlai le.
chūlai, Bàba chūlai le.
huílai, Māma huílai le.
guòlai, Gōngjiāochē guòlai le.
With verb plus qù the action moves away from the speaker. Some examples include shàngqu xiàqujìnqu chūqu huíqu guòqu.
shàngqu , Wǒ shàngqu le.
xiàqu , Tā xiàqu le.
jìnqu Tā jìnqu le.
chūqu Wáng Xiǎobǎo chūqu le.
huíqu Xīxi huíqu le.
guòqu Tā guòqu le.
Now, let’s do some exercises. Please fill in the blanks, depending on the action’s direction.
If I am outside, I could say Wàimian tài lěng le wǒ yào (jìnqu ).
If mum is in the house, mum could say, Wàimian tài lěng le nǐ kuài (jìnlai )ba!
If I am downstairs, I could say, Wǒ zài lóuxia děng nǐ nǐ kuài diǎnr (xiàlai ) If a man is on top of a mountain, he could say, Shānshang de fēngjǐng měi jílenǐmen kuàidiǎnr (shànglai )ba!
Remember, the structures we have learned are verb plus lái. and verb plus qù. Now, let’s listen to our dialogue to end the lesson. Wǒ yǐjing zài xuéxiào ménkǒu le nǐguòlai le ma Wǒ dào lenǐ zhànzai ménkǒu bié dòngwǒ mǎshàng guòqu zhǎo nǐ.
Nǐ zěnme zhème mànkuàidiǎnr guòlai Wǒ zǒu bú dòng lewǒ qí zìxíngchē guòqu.Hǎo ma?
Hǎo banà nǐ kuàilái bawǒ děng nǐ.

In this video we learn 简单趋向补语“来” 和“去” jiǎndān qūxiàng bǔyǔ “lái” hé “qù”(the simple directional complement “来” and“去” ). The structure is: verb +来 or verb +去 Here the complement “来” and“去” shows the direction of the verb. If the action moves towards the speaker or proceeds towards the object under discussion,we use “来”, and if the action moves away from the speaker or proceeds away from the object under discussion,we use“去”.

Introducing simple directional complements Image 1

For example:
Introducing simple directional complements Image 2

Introducing simple directional complements Image 3

The following table is the main simple directional complements, notice that the verb “起qǐ”is special,it can only be used with “Lai” to form a directional complement,means “get up”.

Introducing simple directional complements Image 4

The following is Chinese and English Version of Situational Dialogue in the Video:






Xīxi:I’m already at the school gate. Are you coming?

Wáng Xiǎobǎo:I’m here. You stay at the door and don’t move. I ‘ll be right there.

Xīxi:Why are you so slow? Come on!

Wáng Xiǎobǎo:I am so tired to walk. I will go there by bike.

Xīxi:Well, hurry up, I’ll wait for you.

© Shanghai International Studies University

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