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Interview with Dr Hemma Philamore on decolonisation of robotics and artificial intelligence

In this interview Dr Hemma Philamore covers the decolonisation of robotics and artificial intelligence.
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i<00:00:10.880> think<00:00:11.120> it<00:00:11.200> means<00:00:11.440> sort<00:00:11.599> of<00:00:11.840> improving<00:00:12.240> the i think it means sort of improving the i think it means sort of improving the accessibility accessibility
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accessibility of<00:00:14.080> robots<00:00:14.719> and<00:00:15.280> ai<00:00:15.920> and<00:00:16.320> particularly of robots and ai and particularly
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of robots and ai and particularly thinking<00:00:18.320> about<00:00:19.199> these<00:00:19.439> as<00:00:19.600> things<00:00:20.000> that<00:00:20.160> are thinking about these as things that are thinking about these as things that are very very
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very integrated<00:00:22.240> with<00:00:22.480> human<00:00:22.800> users<00:00:23.119> so<00:00:23.279> we're integrated with human users so we’re
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integrated with human users so we’re starting<00:00:23.680> to<00:00:23.840> see<00:00:24.000> robots<00:00:24.400> sort<00:00:24.640> of<00:00:24.800> out<00:00:25.039> in starting to see robots sort of out in
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starting to see robots sort of out in in<00:00:26.080> the<00:00:26.160> real<00:00:26.400> world<00:00:26.720> and<00:00:26.960> sort<00:00:27.119> of in the real world and sort of
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in the real world and sort of interfacing<00:00:27.920> with<00:00:28.080> people<00:00:28.240> that<00:00:28.400> don't<00:00:28.640> build interfacing with people that don’t build
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interfacing with people that don’t build and<00:00:29.119> operate and operate
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and operate robots<00:00:30.800> so<00:00:31.760> in<00:00:32.160> decolonizing<00:00:32.880> ai<00:00:33.200> and robots so in decolonizing ai and
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robots so in decolonizing ai and robotics<00:00:33.920> i<00:00:34.000> think robotics i think
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robotics i think it’s<00:00:35.200> about<00:00:35.520> trying<00:00:35.760> to<00:00:35.920> remove<00:00:36.960> the<00:00:37.200> sort<00:00:37.360> of it’s about trying to remove the sort of
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it’s about trying to remove the sort of inherent<00:00:39.200> bias<00:00:40.079> you<00:00:40.239> know<00:00:40.320> that<00:00:40.480> comes<00:00:40.879> from inherent bias you know that comes from
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inherent bias you know that comes from colonialism<00:00:43.200> but<00:00:43.440> sort<00:00:43.600> of<00:00:43.760> in<00:00:43.840> the<00:00:43.920> human colonialism but sort of in the human
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colonialism but sort of in the human creators<00:00:44.960> of creators of
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creators of robots<00:00:46.000> and<00:00:46.320> ai<00:00:46.719> and<00:00:46.879> trying<00:00:47.200> to<00:00:47.440> sort<00:00:47.680> of robots and ai and trying to sort of
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robots and ai and trying to sort of remove<00:00:48.480> those<00:00:48.719> from remove those from
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remove those from systems<00:00:49.680> that<00:00:49.760> we're<00:00:49.920> hoping<00:00:50.239> will<00:00:50.960> go<00:00:51.199> out systems that we’re hoping will go out
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systems that we’re hoping will go out and<00:00:51.600> be<00:00:51.840> used<00:00:52.160> by and be used by
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and be used by people<00:00:52.960> who<00:00:53.199> are<00:00:53.280> not<00:00:53.440> the<00:00:53.520> developers people who are not the developers
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people who are not the developers themselves<00:00:54.480> but<00:00:54.640> are<00:00:54.800> there<00:00:55.199> the<00:00:55.360> people themselves but are there the people
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themselves but are there the people um<00:00:57.199> that<00:00:57.600> sort<00:00:57.760> of<00:00:58.079> from<00:00:58.239> now<00:00:58.399> onwards<00:00:58.800> will<00:00:58.879> be um that sort of from now onwards will be
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um that sort of from now onwards will be using<00:01:00.719> ai<00:01:01.039> and<00:01:01.120> robotics<00:01:01.600> products these<00:01:11.119> are<00:01:11.439> systems<00:01:11.840> that<00:01:12.000> are<00:01:12.159> designed<00:01:12.640> to these are systems that are designed to these are systems that are designed to work work
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work autonomously<00:01:15.040> so<00:01:15.119> they're<00:01:15.280> designed<00:01:15.600> to<00:01:15.759> work autonomously so they’re designed to work
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autonomously so they’re designed to work without<00:01:16.560> any<00:01:16.880> sort<00:01:17.040> of<00:01:17.200> human without any sort of human
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without any sort of human uh<00:01:18.560> supervisory<00:01:19.280> input<00:01:19.680> or<00:01:19.840> minimal<00:01:20.560> human uh supervisory input or minimal human
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uh supervisory input or minimal human supervisory<00:01:21.439> input<00:01:21.600> that's<00:01:21.840> like<00:01:22.000> so<00:01:22.159> the supervisory input that’s like so the
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supervisory input that’s like so the sort<00:01:22.479> of<00:01:22.560> ideal<00:01:22.880> that<00:01:22.960> you're<00:01:23.119> working sort of ideal that you’re working
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sort of ideal that you’re working towards<00:01:23.759> with<00:01:23.920> something<00:01:24.320> where towards with something where
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towards with something where it<00:01:25.280> is<00:01:25.759> um<00:01:26.640> you<00:01:26.799> know<00:01:27.040> sort<00:01:27.200> of<00:01:27.360> deemed<00:01:27.680> or it is um you know sort of deemed or
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it is um you know sort of deemed or developed<00:01:28.240> to<00:01:28.320> have<00:01:28.479> intelligent<00:01:28.960> behavior developed to have intelligent behavior
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developed to have intelligent behavior so<00:01:30.000> in<00:01:30.159> that<00:01:30.960> that<00:01:31.200> system<00:01:31.600> that<00:01:31.680> you<00:01:31.840> then<00:01:32.079> put so in that that system that you then put
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so in that that system that you then put out<00:01:32.400> into<00:01:32.560> the<00:01:32.640> world<00:01:32.960> needs<00:01:33.200> to<00:01:33.360> be<00:01:33.439> able<00:01:33.600> to out into the world needs to be able to
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out into the world needs to be able to interact<00:01:34.400> with<00:01:34.640> anyone<00:01:35.040> and<00:01:35.200> everyone<00:01:35.520> that interact with anyone and everyone that
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interact with anyone and everyone that it<00:01:35.840> encounters<00:01:36.400> without<00:01:36.880> some<00:01:37.119> sort<00:01:37.280> of<00:01:37.439> human it encounters without some sort of human
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it encounters without some sort of human in<00:01:37.920> the<00:01:38.079> loop in the loop
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in the loop to<00:01:38.880> sort<00:01:39.040> of<00:01:39.119> correct<00:01:39.439> its<00:01:39.600> behavior<00:01:40.799> so<00:01:41.360> i to sort of correct its behavior so i
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to sort of correct its behavior so i think<00:01:41.840> in<00:01:42.000> designing<00:01:42.560> systems<00:01:42.960> that<00:01:43.280> are think in designing systems that are
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think in designing systems that are biased<00:01:44.479> in<00:01:44.560> their<00:01:44.720> effectiveness<00:01:45.439> towards biased in their effectiveness towards
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biased in their effectiveness towards one<00:01:46.159> group<00:01:46.479> or<00:01:46.640> another one group or another
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one group or another basically<00:01:48.399> means<00:01:48.640> that<00:01:48.880> you're<00:01:49.200> you're<00:01:49.759> you basically means that you’re you’re you
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basically means that you’re you’re you know<00:01:50.000> increasing<00:01:50.399> the<00:01:50.479> probability<00:01:50.960> of<00:01:51.040> your know increasing the probability of your
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know increasing the probability of your system<00:01:51.520> failing<00:01:51.840> once<00:01:52.079> it's<00:01:52.320> out<00:01:52.560> in system failing once it’s out in
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system failing once it’s out in in<00:01:52.960> the<00:01:53.119> world<00:01:54.000> so<00:01:54.240> i<00:01:54.320> think<00:01:54.640> in<00:01:55.280> trying<00:01:55.600> to in the world so i think in trying to
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in the world so i think in trying to remove<00:01:57.600> sources<00:01:58.000> of<00:01:58.159> inherent<00:01:58.640> bias<00:01:58.960> or remove sources of inherent bias or
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remove sources of inherent bias or remove<00:01:59.360> the<00:01:59.439> effects<00:01:59.840> of<00:01:59.920> inherent<00:02:00.320> bias remove the effects of inherent bias
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remove the effects of inherent bias from<00:02:02.240> you<00:02:02.399> know<00:02:02.560> developing<00:02:02.960> robots from you know developing robots
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from you know developing robots developing<00:02:03.759> ai<00:02:04.079> we<00:02:04.240> were<00:02:04.399> increasing<00:02:04.799> the developing ai we were increasing the developing ai we were increasing the success success
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success of<00:02:06.159> the<00:02:06.320> probability<00:02:06.719> of<00:02:06.880> it<00:02:06.960> being<00:02:07.759> a of the probability of it being a of the probability of it being a successful successful
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successful uh<00:02:10.000> technology<00:02:11.599> once<00:02:11.920> it's<00:02:12.080> out<00:02:12.319> of<00:02:12.480> the<00:02:12.560> hands uh technology once it’s out of the hands
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uh technology once it’s out of the hands of<00:02:12.959> the<00:02:13.200> the<00:02:13.360> people<00:02:13.599> that<00:02:13.840> develop<00:02:14.160> it<00:02:14.239> the of the the people that develop it the
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of the the people that develop it the people<00:02:14.560> that<00:02:14.640> create<00:02:14.959> it<00:02:15.040> and<00:02:15.200> it's<00:02:15.360> put people that create it and it’s put
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people that create it and it’s put through<00:02:15.840> that<00:02:16.080> sort<00:02:16.239> of<00:02:16.400> rigorous through that sort of rigorous
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through that sort of rigorous um<00:02:18.640> test<00:02:18.879> that<00:02:19.120> is<00:02:19.280> having<00:02:19.599> to<00:02:19.760> work<00:02:20.239> in um test that is having to work in
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um test that is having to work in a<00:02:21.360> sort<00:02:21.520> of<00:02:21.760> stochastic<00:02:22.720> unpredictable<00:02:23.680> real a sort of stochastic unpredictable real a sort of stochastic unpredictable real world world world setting i<00:02:35.040> think<00:02:35.280> the<00:02:35.440> biggest<00:02:35.760> one<00:02:36.720> is<00:02:36.879> probably i think the biggest one is probably
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i think the biggest one is probably the<00:02:39.360> fact<00:02:39.519> that<00:02:39.680> we<00:02:39.920> often<00:02:40.400> forget<00:02:41.680> the<00:02:41.840> sort the fact that we often forget the sort the fact that we often forget the sort of of
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of human<00:02:44.000> agency<00:02:44.480> in<00:02:44.640> developing<00:02:45.200> things<00:02:45.519> that human agency in developing things that
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human agency in developing things that are<00:02:45.840> supposed<00:02:46.239> to<00:02:46.319> be<00:02:46.480> kind<00:02:46.640> of<00:02:46.879> standalone are supposed to be kind of standalone
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are supposed to be kind of standalone agents<00:02:49.200> by<00:02:49.440> themselves<00:02:49.840> so<00:02:50.000> there's<00:02:50.160> often<00:02:50.400> a agents by themselves so there’s often a
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agents by themselves so there’s often a perception<00:02:50.959> of perception of
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perception of artificial<00:02:52.640> intelligence<00:02:53.280> that<00:02:53.440> it's<00:02:53.599> a<00:02:53.680> sort artificial intelligence that it’s a sort
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artificial intelligence that it’s a sort of<00:02:54.160> black<00:02:54.560> box of black box
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of black box and<00:02:56.239> that<00:02:56.480> it<00:02:56.959> it's<00:02:57.280> some<00:02:57.440> kind<00:02:57.680> of<00:02:57.760> sort<00:02:57.920> of and that it it’s some kind of sort of
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and that it it’s some kind of sort of magic<00:02:58.560> that<00:02:58.720> does<00:02:58.959> its<00:02:59.200> own magic that does its own
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magic that does its own its<00:03:00.239> own<00:03:00.480> thing<00:03:01.680> but<00:03:02.000> there's<00:03:02.480> the<00:03:02.720> human<00:03:03.040> that its own thing but there’s the human that
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its own thing but there’s the human that developed<00:03:03.680> that developed that
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developed that algorithm<00:03:05.360> and<00:03:06.000> all<00:03:06.319> of<00:03:06.480> their algorithm and all of their
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algorithm and all of their you<00:03:07.840> know<00:03:08.239> and<00:03:08.800> sometimes<00:03:09.120> unintentional you know and sometimes unintentional
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you know and sometimes unintentional bias<00:03:10.080> goes<00:03:10.319> into<00:03:10.480> the<00:03:10.560> creation<00:03:11.200> of<00:03:11.360> that bias goes into the creation of that bias goes into the creation of that algorithm algorithm
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algorithm um<00:03:13.519> and<00:03:13.760> so<00:03:14.000> i<00:03:14.159> think<00:03:15.440> the<00:03:15.599> biggest um and so i think the biggest
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um and so i think the biggest problem<00:03:18.400> or<00:03:18.560> one<00:03:18.720> of<00:03:18.800> the<00:03:18.879> greatest problem or one of the greatest problem or one of the greatest challenges challenges
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challenges with<00:03:20.560> um<00:03:21.280> you<00:03:21.440> know<00:03:21.599> trying<00:03:21.840> to<00:03:22.000> implement with um you know trying to implement
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with um you know trying to implement this<00:03:23.760> sort<00:03:23.920> of<00:03:24.000> removal<00:03:24.400> of<00:03:24.480> biases<00:03:25.040> it's<00:03:25.120> so this sort of removal of biases it’s so
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this sort of removal of biases it’s so ingrained<00:03:25.840> sometimes<00:03:26.239> unconsciously<00:03:26.799> in<00:03:26.959> the ingrained sometimes unconsciously in the
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ingrained sometimes unconsciously in the people<00:03:27.360> that<00:03:27.599> are people that are
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people that are building<00:03:29.200> and<00:03:29.360> developing<00:03:29.840> new<00:03:30.000> systems<00:03:30.959> so building and developing new systems so
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building and developing new systems so you<00:03:31.280> can<00:03:31.440> try<00:03:31.599> to<00:03:31.840> build<00:03:32.159> something you can try to build something
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you can try to build something as<00:03:33.599> you<00:03:33.680> know<00:03:35.360> inclusive as you know inclusive
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as you know inclusive to<00:03:37.200> everyone<00:03:37.680> around<00:03:38.000> you<00:03:38.400> as<00:03:38.560> you<00:03:38.799> like<00:03:39.120> but to everyone around you as you like but
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to everyone around you as you like but that’s<00:03:39.680> very that’s very
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that’s very much<00:03:40.560> influenced<00:03:41.040> by<00:03:41.200> your<00:03:41.360> own<00:03:41.519> perspective much influenced by your own perspective
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much influenced by your own perspective of<00:03:42.159> who<00:03:42.720> everyone<00:03:43.200> is of who everyone is
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of who everyone is so<00:03:44.799> people<00:03:45.120> outside<00:03:45.440> of<00:03:45.519> your<00:03:45.680> immediate so people outside of your immediate
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so people outside of your immediate circle<00:03:46.879> of circle of
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circle of the<00:03:47.280> people<00:03:47.440> that<00:03:47.599> you<00:03:47.680> operate<00:03:48.000> where<00:03:48.159> the the people that you operate where the
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the people that you operate where the people<00:03:48.480> that<00:03:48.560> you<00:03:48.720> interact<00:03:49.120> with<00:03:49.840> might<00:03:50.000> not people that you interact with might not
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people that you interact with might not even<00:03:50.480> occur<00:03:50.720> to<00:03:50.879> you even occur to you
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even occur to you in<00:03:51.680> developing<00:03:52.159> something<00:03:52.560> and<00:03:52.720> so<00:03:53.200> your<00:03:53.519> own in developing something and so your own
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in developing something and so your own sort<00:03:54.400> of<00:03:54.480> limited<00:03:54.879> sphere<00:03:55.280> of sort of limited sphere of
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sort of limited sphere of interaction<00:03:57.840> can<00:03:58.799> if<00:03:58.879> you're<00:03:59.200> you<00:03:59.360> know interaction can if you’re you know
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interaction can if you’re you know developing<00:03:59.840> one<00:04:00.000> of<00:04:00.080> these<00:04:00.239> things<00:04:00.560> can<00:04:00.720> then developing one of these things can then
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developing one of these things can then sort<00:04:01.760> of<00:04:01.840> feed<00:04:02.080> forward<00:04:02.400> into<00:04:02.640> the<00:04:02.720> thing<00:04:02.879> that sort of feed forward into the thing that
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sort of feed forward into the thing that you<00:04:03.200> develop<00:04:03.599> and<00:04:04.159> and<00:04:04.400> sort<00:04:04.560> of you develop and and sort of
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you develop and and sort of i<00:04:05.120> don't<00:04:05.280> know<00:04:05.519> impart<00:04:05.920> your<00:04:06.159> bias<00:04:06.560> into<00:04:06.959> into that uh<00:04:16.959> there's<00:04:17.199> sort<00:04:17.359> of<00:04:17.440> the<00:04:17.519> teaching<00:04:17.919> parts<00:04:18.239> of uh there’s sort of the teaching parts of
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uh there’s sort of the teaching parts of that<00:04:18.479> and<00:04:18.560> then<00:04:18.880> there's<00:04:19.120> the<00:04:19.199> kind<00:04:19.359> of<00:04:19.440> the that and then there’s the kind of the
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that and then there’s the kind of the research<00:04:20.000> part research part
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research part to<00:04:20.799> it<00:04:21.359> um<00:04:22.400> and<00:04:22.560> the<00:04:22.639> research<00:04:23.040> side<00:04:23.280> of<00:04:23.360> things to it um and the research side of things
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to it um and the research side of things i<00:04:23.759> think<00:04:23.919> there's i think there’s
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i think there’s a<00:04:24.639> lot<00:04:24.800> of<00:04:24.880> things<00:04:25.120> that<00:04:25.199> we're<00:04:25.360> doing<00:04:26.000> revolve a lot of things that we’re doing revolve
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a lot of things that we’re doing revolve around<00:04:27.280> the<00:04:27.440> idea<00:04:27.680> of<00:04:27.759> co-authorship around the idea of co-authorship
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around the idea of co-authorship and<00:04:28.639> co-creation<00:04:29.360> and<00:04:29.440> sort<00:04:29.680> of and co-creation and sort of
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and co-creation and sort of participatory<00:04:30.639> research<00:04:31.199> where participatory research where
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participatory research where we<00:04:32.000> try<00:04:32.160> to<00:04:32.400> involve<00:04:33.120> people<00:04:33.840> or<00:04:34.000> we<00:04:34.160> do we try to involve people or we do
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we try to involve people or we do actively<00:04:34.880> involve<00:04:35.280> people actively involve people
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actively involve people who<00:04:36.400> are<00:04:36.560> maybe<00:04:36.960> outside<00:04:37.680> of<00:04:38.080> the<00:04:38.240> typical who are maybe outside of the typical
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who are maybe outside of the typical groups<00:04:39.040> that<00:04:39.280> we<00:04:39.600> would groups that we would
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groups that we would test<00:04:40.320> things<00:04:40.720> on<00:04:41.440> in<00:04:41.600> the<00:04:41.759> lab<00:04:42.000> partly<00:04:42.400> because test things on in the lab partly because
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test things on in the lab partly because test<00:04:42.880> participants<00:04:43.360> tend<00:04:43.520> to<00:04:43.600> be<00:04:43.680> whoever test participants tend to be whoever
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test participants tend to be whoever else<00:04:44.240> it<00:04:44.400> is<00:04:44.479> in<00:04:44.560> the<00:04:44.639> lab<00:04:44.880> at<00:04:44.960> the<00:04:45.040> time<00:04:45.280> so else it is in the lab at the time so
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else it is in the lab at the time so they’re<00:04:45.600> people<00:04:46.000> who they’re people who
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they’re people who maybe<00:04:46.960> already<00:04:47.199> work<00:04:47.360> in<00:04:47.440> robotics<00:04:48.160> or<00:04:48.479> who maybe already work in robotics or who
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maybe already work in robotics or who already<00:04:49.440> work<00:04:49.600> in<00:04:49.680> the<00:04:49.759> university<00:04:50.240> they're already work in the university they’re
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already work in the university they’re not<00:04:50.560> they're<00:04:50.720> only<00:04:50.960> so<00:04:51.120> many<00:04:51.280> degrees<00:04:51.600> of not they’re only so many degrees of
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not they’re only so many degrees of separation<00:04:52.240> from<00:04:52.479> who separation from who
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separation from who we<00:04:53.280> are<00:04:53.440> as<00:04:53.520> the<00:04:53.840> developers<00:04:54.320> of<00:04:54.400> these<00:04:54.639> things we are as the developers of these things we are as the developers of these things so so
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so taking<00:04:57.040> an<00:04:57.199> example<00:04:57.840> of<00:04:58.240> something<00:04:58.560> that taking an example of something that
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taking an example of something that we’re<00:04:58.800> doing<00:04:59.520> recently<00:05:00.000> is<00:05:00.160> looking<00:05:00.479> at<00:05:00.639> it's we’re doing recently is looking at it’s
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we’re doing recently is looking at it’s not<00:05:01.280> sort<00:05:01.440> of not sort of
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not sort of directly<00:05:02.240> related<00:05:02.800> to<00:05:03.600> decolonization<00:05:04.479> this directly related to decolonization this
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directly related to decolonization this particular<00:05:05.039> example<00:05:05.440> but<00:05:05.680> it's particular example but it’s
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particular example but it’s you<00:05:06.080> know<00:05:06.320> it<00:05:06.400> could<00:05:06.560> be<00:05:06.720> sort<00:05:06.880> of<00:05:07.039> um<00:05:07.919> extended you know it could be sort of um extended you know it could be sort of um extended uh uh
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uh in<00:05:09.440> that<00:05:09.600> direction<00:05:10.320> but<00:05:10.880> running in that direction but running
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in that direction but running co-creation<00:05:12.000> workshops<00:05:12.560> for<00:05:12.720> development<00:05:13.360> of co-creation workshops for development of
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co-creation workshops for development of uh<00:05:14.560> soft<00:05:14.800> robots<00:05:15.520> who<00:05:16.080> with<00:05:16.240> the<00:05:16.400> aim<00:05:16.560> of uh soft robots who with the aim of
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uh soft robots who with the aim of having<00:05:17.039> these<00:05:17.280> robots<00:05:17.759> has having these robots has
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having these robots has sort<00:05:18.240> of<00:05:18.400> robot<00:05:18.720> avatars<00:05:19.280> for<00:05:19.520> people<00:05:19.840> who sort of robot avatars for people who sort of robot avatars for people who can’t can’t
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can’t be<00:05:22.400> in<00:05:22.560> a<00:05:22.639> physical<00:05:22.960> space<00:05:23.280> because<00:05:23.520> they<00:05:23.680> are be in a physical space because they are
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be in a physical space because they are socially<00:05:24.560> isolating<00:05:25.120> because<00:05:25.280> they're socially isolating because they’re
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socially isolating because they’re isolating<00:05:25.840> for<00:05:26.000> another<00:05:26.400> another<00:05:26.720> reason isolating for another another reason
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isolating for another another reason and<00:05:28.240> in<00:05:28.560> that<00:05:28.720> we're<00:05:28.880> sort<00:05:29.039> of<00:05:29.120> mostly<00:05:29.440> looking and in that we’re sort of mostly looking
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and in that we’re sort of mostly looking at<00:05:29.919> elderly<00:05:30.320> people at elderly people
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at elderly people but<00:05:31.120> there's<00:05:31.360> no<00:05:31.520> reason<00:05:31.759> that<00:05:31.919> that<00:05:32.160> couldn't but there’s no reason that that couldn’t
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but there’s no reason that that couldn’t be<00:05:32.880> another<00:05:33.919> another<00:05:34.240> group be another another group
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be another another group and<00:05:35.120> actually<00:05:35.360> there's<00:05:35.520> been<00:05:35.759> a<00:05:35.840> few<00:05:36.479> similar and actually there’s been a few similar
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and actually there’s been a few similar workshops<00:05:37.360> working<00:05:37.600> with<00:05:37.759> other<00:05:38.240> people<00:05:38.479> for workshops working with other people for
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workshops working with other people for the<00:05:38.720> for<00:05:38.880> the<00:05:38.960> perspective<00:05:39.360> of<00:05:39.520> different the for the perspective of different
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the for the perspective of different things<00:05:39.919> in<00:05:40.000> the<00:05:40.080> robotics<00:05:40.639> lab things in the robotics lab
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things in the robotics lab so<00:05:41.280> the<00:05:41.440> ideas<00:05:41.759> of<00:05:42.000> smart<00:05:42.320> clothing<00:05:42.720> were<00:05:42.880> also so the ideas of smart clothing were also
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so the ideas of smart clothing were also done<00:05:43.680> in<00:05:43.759> our<00:05:43.919> group<00:05:44.080> and<00:05:44.240> a<00:05:44.240> lot<00:05:44.400> of<00:05:44.479> those done in our group and a lot of those
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done in our group and a lot of those ideas<00:05:45.120> came<00:05:45.360> from ideas came from
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ideas came from sort<00:05:47.440> of<00:05:47.680> workshop<00:05:48.240> ideas<00:05:48.560> with<00:05:48.720> the sort of workshop ideas with the
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sort of workshop ideas with the potential<00:05:49.199> end<00:05:49.440> users<00:05:49.840> of<00:05:50.160> this<00:05:50.320> type<00:05:50.479> of potential end users of this type of potential end users of this type of thing thing
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thing so<00:05:51.520> there's<00:05:51.680> an<00:05:51.840> element<00:05:52.160> of<00:05:52.240> trying<00:05:52.479> to<00:05:52.560> bring so there’s an element of trying to bring
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so there’s an element of trying to bring people<00:05:53.039> in<00:05:53.120> who<00:05:53.280> are<00:05:53.360> going<00:05:53.440> to<00:05:53.520> use<00:05:53.680> this people in who are going to use this
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people in who are going to use this technology<00:05:54.320> in<00:05:54.400> an<00:05:54.560> early<00:05:54.800> stage<00:05:55.039> in<00:05:55.120> its technology in an early stage in its technology in an early stage in its development development
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development on<00:05:56.560> in<00:05:57.039> research<00:05:58.240> and<00:05:58.319> then<00:05:58.560> in<00:05:58.720> teaching on in research and then in teaching
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on in research and then in teaching um<00:05:59.919> so<00:06:00.160> for<00:06:00.319> example<00:06:00.720> the<00:06:00.800> module<00:06:01.120> that<00:06:01.360> i<00:06:01.759> i um so for example the module that i i
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um so for example the module that i i teach<00:06:02.240> on teach on
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teach on mathematical<00:06:03.199> data<00:06:03.440> modeling<00:06:04.479> so<00:06:05.280> before<00:06:05.600> i mathematical data modeling so before i
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mathematical data modeling so before i talk<00:06:05.919> about<00:06:06.160> that talk about that
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talk about that i<00:06:07.120> think<00:06:07.360> it<00:06:07.520> can<00:06:07.759> be<00:06:07.919> really<00:06:08.160> difficult<00:06:08.639> to i think it can be really difficult to
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i think it can be really difficult to try<00:06:09.039> and<00:06:09.199> identify<00:06:09.919> how<00:06:10.160> to try and identify how to
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try and identify how to decolonize<00:06:11.520> taurt<00:06:11.840> subjects<00:06:12.479> in<00:06:12.800> stem decolonize taurt subjects in stem decolonize taurt subjects in stem particularly particularly
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particularly partly<00:06:14.160> because<00:06:14.400> there<00:06:14.560> is<00:06:14.720> so<00:06:14.880> much<00:06:15.120> emphasis partly because there is so much emphasis
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partly because there is so much emphasis on<00:06:16.639> highly<00:06:17.039> or<00:06:17.199> there's<00:06:17.440> so<00:06:17.600> much<00:06:17.759> focus on highly or there’s so much focus
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on highly or there’s so much focus necessarily<00:06:19.039> on<00:06:19.280> highly<00:06:19.600> technical<00:06:20.800> subjects necessarily on highly technical subjects
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necessarily on highly technical subjects and<00:06:21.520> topics and topics
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and topics and<00:06:22.800> the<00:06:22.960> teaching<00:06:23.840> is<00:06:24.000> sometimes and the teaching is sometimes
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and the teaching is sometimes you<00:06:25.759> know<00:06:25.919> potentially<00:06:26.319> sort<00:06:26.400> of<00:06:26.560> agnostic<00:06:27.280> to you know potentially sort of agnostic to
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you know potentially sort of agnostic to um<00:06:28.240> to um to
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um to social<00:06:30.639> influence<00:06:31.120> or<00:06:31.199> social<00:06:31.520> issues social influence or social issues
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social influence or social issues but<00:06:32.880> in<00:06:33.199> subjects<00:06:33.759> like<00:06:34.319> uh<00:06:34.639> mathematical but in subjects like uh mathematical
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but in subjects like uh mathematical data<00:06:35.520> modeling<00:06:35.840> which<00:06:36.000> is<00:06:36.160> a<00:06:36.240> unit<00:06:36.479> that<00:06:36.560> i data modeling which is a unit that i
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data modeling which is a unit that i teach<00:06:36.960> on teach on
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teach on at<00:06:37.759> bristol<00:06:38.800> in<00:06:38.960> that<00:06:39.120> case<00:06:39.919> we're<00:06:40.080> looking<00:06:40.400> at at bristol in that case we’re looking at
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at bristol in that case we’re looking at some<00:06:41.680> constant<00:06:42.080> focus<00:06:42.479> of<00:06:42.800> the<00:06:42.960> units<00:06:43.280> to some constant focus of the units to
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some constant focus of the units to bring<00:06:43.680> in<00:06:44.240> problems<00:06:44.639> from<00:06:44.880> outside<00:06:45.280> of bring in problems from outside of
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bring in problems from outside of engineering<00:06:46.720> maths<00:06:46.960> and<00:06:47.039> then<00:06:47.280> in<00:06:47.360> the<00:06:47.440> best engineering maths and then in the best
407.7
engineering maths and then in the best case<00:06:47.759> study<00:06:48.080> outside<00:06:48.319> of<00:06:48.400> the<00:06:48.560> university case study outside of the university
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case study outside of the university completely<00:06:50.479> um<00:06:50.720> so<00:06:50.880> these<00:06:51.039> are<00:06:51.199> kind<00:06:51.280> of completely um so these are kind of completely um so these are kind of data-driven data-driven
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data-driven problems<00:06:53.120> either<00:06:53.360> on<00:06:53.520> sort<00:06:53.680> of<00:06:53.759> physical problems either on sort of physical
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problems either on sort of physical modeling<00:06:54.319> or<00:06:54.479> data<00:06:54.720> modeling<00:06:55.360> um<00:06:55.599> or<00:06:55.840> other modeling or data modeling um or other
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modeling or data modeling um or other types<00:06:57.199> of<00:06:57.840> mathematical<00:06:58.319> modeling<00:06:58.560> but types of mathematical modeling but
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types of mathematical modeling but looking<00:06:58.960> at<00:06:59.120> translating<00:06:59.680> a<00:06:59.759> real<00:06:59.919> world looking at translating a real world looking at translating a real world issue issue
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issue into<00:07:01.680> a<00:07:01.759> model<00:07:02.080> to<00:07:02.240> try<00:07:02.479> and<00:07:02.800> answer<00:07:03.120> some<00:07:03.759> some into a model to try and answer some some
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into a model to try and answer some some open<00:07:04.240> questions<00:07:04.960> about<00:07:05.280> it open questions about it
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open questions about it so<00:07:05.759> in<00:07:05.840> that<00:07:06.080> we're<00:07:06.240> trying<00:07:06.479> to<00:07:06.639> get<00:07:06.880> students so in that we’re trying to get students
427.4
so in that we’re trying to get students to<00:07:07.759> well<00:07:07.919> first<00:07:08.160> of<00:07:08.240> all<00:07:08.319> making<00:07:08.560> this<00:07:08.720> an to well first of all making this an
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to well first of all making this an assessed<00:07:09.280> part<00:07:09.520> of<00:07:09.599> the assessed part of the
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assessed part of the course<00:07:10.560> so<00:07:10.720> we're<00:07:10.960> making<00:07:11.199> it<00:07:11.280> compulsory<00:07:11.840> for course so we’re making it compulsory for
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course so we’re making it compulsory for students<00:07:12.479> to students to
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students to try<00:07:13.759> to<00:07:13.919> identify<00:07:14.800> and<00:07:15.199> make<00:07:15.440> recommendations try to identify and make recommendations
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try to identify and make recommendations to<00:07:16.160> mitigate<00:07:16.639> those<00:07:16.800> sources<00:07:17.199> of<00:07:17.280> bias to mitigate those sources of bias
437.8
to mitigate those sources of bias in<00:07:18.319> the<00:07:18.400> data<00:07:18.720> that<00:07:18.800> they're<00:07:18.960> working<00:07:19.280> with in the data that they’re working with in the data that they’re working with and and
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and so<00:07:21.039> in<00:07:21.199> that<00:07:21.360> you<00:07:21.440> know<00:07:21.759> it's<00:07:22.000> it's<00:07:22.160> not<00:07:22.479> a<00:07:23.120> sort so in that you know it’s it’s not a sort so in that you know it’s it’s not a sort of of
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of trivial<00:07:24.319> thing<00:07:24.560> at<00:07:24.720> all<00:07:24.880> that's<00:07:25.120> a<00:07:25.280> very trivial thing at all that’s a very trivial thing at all that’s a very significant significant
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significant thing<00:07:28.160> that's<00:07:28.319> going<00:07:28.479> to<00:07:28.560> have<00:07:28.720> this<00:07:28.880> sort<00:07:29.039> of thing that’s going to have this sort of
449.1
thing that’s going to have this sort of measurable<00:07:29.599> impact<00:07:30.080> on<00:07:30.639> not<00:07:30.800> only<00:07:31.039> the measurable impact on not only the
451.6
measurable impact on not only the the<00:07:31.759> success<00:07:32.160> of<00:07:32.240> the<00:07:32.400> students<00:07:32.800> project<00:07:33.280> in the success of the students project in
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the success of the students project in that<00:07:33.680> course<00:07:34.080> but<00:07:34.240> then that course but then
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that course but then you<00:07:34.720> know<00:07:34.880> they're<00:07:35.039> going<00:07:35.120> to<00:07:35.199> be<00:07:35.919> a<00:07:36.000> data you know they’re going to be a data
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you know they’re going to be a data engineer<00:07:36.720> for<00:07:36.960> example engineer for example
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engineer for example in<00:07:38.319> in<00:07:38.400> their<00:07:38.560> future<00:07:38.880> careers<00:07:39.199> of<00:07:39.280> the<00:07:39.360> future in in their future careers of the future
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in in their future careers of the future products<00:07:39.919> that<00:07:40.000> they're<00:07:40.160> developing<00:07:40.639> in<00:07:40.720> the products that they’re developing in the
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products that they’re developing in the you<00:07:41.120> know<00:07:41.280> future<00:07:41.599> work<00:07:41.840> that<00:07:41.919> they're<00:07:42.080> doing you know future work that they’re doing
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you know future work that they’re doing so<00:07:43.280> i<00:07:43.440> think so i think
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so i think there’s<00:07:44.960> these<00:07:45.199> two<00:07:45.680> those<00:07:45.919> are<00:07:46.479> two<00:07:47.199> two there’s these two those are two two
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there’s these two those are two two ongoing<00:07:48.400> things<00:07:48.639> that<00:07:48.720> i<00:07:48.800> think<00:07:49.039> are<00:07:49.120> working ongoing things that i think are working
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ongoing things that i think are working quite<00:07:49.520> successfully<00:07:50.080> at<00:07:50.160> the<00:07:50.240> moment<00:07:50.639> is quite successfully at the moment is
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quite successfully at the moment is you<00:07:51.199> know<00:07:51.360> these<00:07:51.520> two<00:07:51.759> ideas<00:07:52.080> of<00:07:52.160> bringing<00:07:52.479> in you know these two ideas of bringing in
472.6
you know these two ideas of bringing in people<00:07:53.039> who<00:07:53.199> are<00:07:53.360> going<00:07:53.520> to<00:07:53.680> use<00:07:53.919> this people who are going to use this people who are going to use this technology technology
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technology at<00:07:55.360> an<00:07:55.440> early<00:07:55.680> stage<00:07:56.000> who<00:07:56.160> are<00:07:56.240> outside<00:07:56.639> of<00:07:56.800> i at an early stage who are outside of i
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at an early stage who are outside of i direct<00:07:57.759> you<00:07:57.919> know direct you know
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direct you know sort<00:07:58.639> of<00:07:59.919> direct<00:08:00.240> networks<00:08:01.199> and<00:08:01.280> then sort of direct networks and then
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sort of direct networks and then building<00:08:02.400> in<00:08:03.199> sort<00:08:03.360> of<00:08:03.840> building<00:08:04.240> into<00:08:04.400> the building in sort of building into the building in sort of building into the curriculum curriculum
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curriculum non-trivial<00:08:06.879> elements<00:08:07.440> that<00:08:08.000> make<00:08:08.240> students non-trivial elements that make students
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non-trivial elements that make students think<00:08:08.800> about think about
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think about why<00:08:09.680> bias<00:08:10.240> by<00:08:10.560> why<00:08:10.720> removing<00:08:11.199> sources<00:08:11.520> of<00:08:11.599> bias why bias by why removing sources of bias
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why bias by why removing sources of bias is<00:08:12.639> important<00:08:13.840> not<00:08:14.000> only<00:08:14.160> for<00:08:14.319> the<00:08:14.400> purpose<00:08:14.720> of is important not only for the purpose of
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is important not only for the purpose of getting<00:08:15.120> a<00:08:15.199> good<00:08:15.440> mark<00:08:15.680> or<00:08:15.840> being<00:08:16.000> a<00:08:16.080> good getting a good mark or being a good getting a good mark or being a good person person
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person but<00:08:17.520> for<00:08:18.080> you<00:08:18.160> know<00:08:18.319> the<00:08:18.479> success<00:08:18.879> of<00:08:18.960> what but for you know the success of what
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but for you know the success of what they’re<00:08:19.280> doing<00:08:19.599> and<00:08:19.680> how<00:08:20.240> that they’re doing and how that
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they’re doing and how that works<00:08:21.440> most<00:08:21.680> effectively<00:08:22.240> in<00:08:22.639> the<00:08:22.720> real<00:08:24.840> world yeah<00:08:32.240> i<00:08:32.320> think<00:08:32.479> it's<00:08:32.560> a<00:08:32.640> good<00:08:32.880> question<00:08:33.279> it's yeah i think it’s a good question it’s
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yeah i think it’s a good question it’s something<00:08:33.760> that<00:08:33.919> was<00:08:34.320> um something that was um
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something that was um talked<00:08:35.599> about<00:08:35.919> in<00:08:36.000> a<00:08:36.159> paper<00:08:36.479> that<00:08:36.640> you<00:08:36.719> shared talked about in a paper that you shared
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talked about in a paper that you shared with<00:08:37.120> me<00:08:37.760> uh<00:08:38.159> not<00:08:38.320> very<00:08:38.560> long<00:08:38.719> ago<00:08:38.959> and<00:08:39.039> it's<00:08:39.200> a with me uh not very long ago and it’s a
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with me uh not very long ago and it’s a really<00:08:39.519> interesting really interesting
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really interesting um<00:08:42.080> and<00:08:42.240> quite<00:08:42.479> difficult<00:08:42.959> question<00:08:43.279> of<00:08:43.440> if um and quite difficult question of if
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um and quite difficult question of if you<00:08:43.760> give you give
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you give a<00:08:44.800> robot<00:08:45.519> sort<00:08:45.680> of<00:08:46.240> an<00:08:46.399> implied<00:08:47.360> human a robot sort of an implied human
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a robot sort of an implied human race<00:08:49.279> to<00:08:49.440> the<00:08:49.519> potential<00:08:50.080> sort<00:08:50.240> of<00:08:50.320> social race to the potential sort of social race to the potential sort of social implications implications
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implications of<00:08:52.720> you<00:08:52.800> know<00:08:52.959> that<00:08:53.120> apply<00:08:53.360> to<00:08:53.440> humans<00:08:53.839> then of you know that apply to humans then
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of you know that apply to humans then then<00:08:54.480> apply<00:08:54.959> applies<00:08:55.200> to<00:08:55.279> the<00:08:55.360> robot<00:08:55.839> so then apply applies to the robot so
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then apply applies to the robot so a<00:08:56.480> lot<00:08:56.640> of<00:08:56.800> robots<00:08:57.440> humanoid<00:08:57.839> robots<00:08:58.480> are<00:08:58.800> sort a lot of robots humanoid robots are sort a lot of robots humanoid robots are sort of of
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of made<00:09:00.240> to<00:09:00.399> look<00:09:00.959> made<00:09:01.200> to<00:09:01.279> look<00:09:01.519> white<00:09:02.399> um<00:09:02.880> and made to look made to look white um and
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made to look made to look white um and there’s<00:09:03.200> a<00:09:03.279> lot<00:09:03.440> of<00:09:03.519> you<00:09:03.600> know<00:09:03.680> that's<00:09:03.920> that's there’s a lot of you know that’s that’s
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there’s a lot of you know that’s that’s problematic<00:09:04.640> for<00:09:04.800> a<00:09:04.880> lot<00:09:04.959> of<00:09:05.040> different problematic for a lot of different
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problematic for a lot of different reasons<00:09:05.760> but<00:09:05.839> there's<00:09:06.080> also<00:09:06.839> this reasons but there’s also this
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reasons but there’s also this thing<00:09:08.880> in<00:09:09.360> robotics<00:09:09.920> the<00:09:10.000> uncanny<00:09:10.480> valley thing in robotics the uncanny valley
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thing in robotics the uncanny valley where<00:09:10.959> people<00:09:11.279> have<00:09:11.519> this<00:09:11.760> kind<00:09:12.000> of where people have this kind of
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where people have this kind of rejection<00:09:13.440> of<00:09:13.600> things<00:09:13.839> that<00:09:13.920> look<00:09:14.160> too rejection of things that look too
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rejection of things that look too similar<00:09:14.720> to<00:09:14.880> humans<00:09:15.279> this<00:09:15.440> sort<00:09:15.600> of similar to humans this sort of
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similar to humans this sort of where<00:09:16.240> things<00:09:16.640> become<00:09:17.040> you<00:09:17.120> know<00:09:17.279> more<00:09:17.440> and where things become you know more and
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where things become you know more and more<00:09:17.760> and<00:09:17.839> more<00:09:18.000> familiar<00:09:18.720> and<00:09:18.880> people<00:09:19.200> sort more and more familiar and people sort
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more and more familiar and people sort of<00:09:19.440> warms<00:09:19.680> them<00:09:19.839> and<00:09:19.920> then<00:09:20.080> this<00:09:20.320> massive of warms them and then this massive
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of warms them and then this massive drop-off<00:09:20.959> where<00:09:21.120> things<00:09:21.360> become<00:09:21.680> so<00:09:21.920> close<00:09:22.320> to drop-off where things become so close to
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drop-off where things become so close to actually<00:09:23.920> resembling<00:09:24.560> humans<00:09:24.959> that<00:09:25.040> they actually resembling humans that they
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actually resembling humans that they become<00:09:25.440> creepy<00:09:25.839> and<00:09:26.000> people<00:09:26.160> don't<00:09:26.399> actually become creepy and people don’t actually
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become creepy and people don’t actually want<00:09:26.880> to want to
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want to to<00:09:27.279> interact<00:09:27.680> with<00:09:27.760> them<00:09:28.399> so<00:09:29.040> i<00:09:29.200> don't<00:09:29.680> think to interact with them so i don’t think
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to interact with them so i don’t think there<00:09:30.160> is<00:09:30.320> necessarily there is necessarily
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there is necessarily a<00:09:31.920> need<00:09:32.560> for<00:09:33.680> robots a need for robots
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a need for robots i<00:09:35.040> mean<00:09:35.279> for<00:09:35.440> robots<00:09:35.839> to<00:09:36.000> resemble<00:09:37.120> humans i mean for robots to resemble humans
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i mean for robots to resemble humans necessarily<00:09:38.480> in<00:09:38.640> a<00:09:38.720> lot<00:09:38.880> of<00:09:39.040> different<00:09:39.360> tasks necessarily in a lot of different tasks
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necessarily in a lot of different tasks and<00:09:39.839> there's<00:09:39.920> a<00:09:40.000> lot<00:09:40.080> of<00:09:40.160> different<00:09:40.399> tasks and there’s a lot of different tasks
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and there’s a lot of different tasks where<00:09:40.800> a<00:09:40.880> humanoid<00:09:41.279> robot<00:09:41.680> is<00:09:41.760> not where a humanoid robot is not
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where a humanoid robot is not necessarily<00:09:42.399> the<00:09:42.640> best necessarily the best
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necessarily the best suited<00:09:44.080> you<00:09:44.160> know<00:09:44.399> morphology<00:09:45.040> to<00:09:45.519> to<00:09:45.760> achieve suited you know morphology to to achieve
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suited you know morphology to to achieve whatever<00:09:46.399> task<00:09:46.640> it's<00:09:46.800> trying<00:09:46.959> to<00:09:47.120> do whatever task it’s trying to do
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whatever task it’s trying to do i<00:09:48.480> don't<00:09:48.640> think<00:09:48.800> we<00:09:48.959> necessarily<00:09:49.440> need<00:09:49.600> to i don’t think we necessarily need to
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i don’t think we necessarily need to build<00:09:49.920> in<00:09:50.080> race<00:09:50.320> as<00:09:50.399> a<00:09:50.480> human<00:09:50.720> character build in race as a human character build in race as a human character characteristic characteristic
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characteristic into<00:09:52.720> robots<00:09:53.519> the<00:09:53.680> same<00:09:53.920> way<00:09:54.160> that<00:09:54.480> there's<00:09:54.640> a into robots the same way that there’s a
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into robots the same way that there’s a lot<00:09:54.880> of<00:09:55.040> other<00:09:55.200> human<00:09:55.440> characteristics<00:09:56.240> that lot of other human characteristics that
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lot of other human characteristics that are<00:09:57.519> potentially<00:09:58.000> becoming<00:09:58.480> more<00:09:58.640> and<00:09:58.800> more are potentially becoming more and more are potentially becoming more and more unnecessary unnecessary
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unnecessary in<00:10:00.320> in<00:10:00.480> robots<00:10:00.959> as<00:10:01.120> we<00:10:01.920> focus<00:10:02.320> on in in robots as we focus on
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in in robots as we focus on the<00:10:03.760> things<00:10:04.000> that<00:10:04.160> make<00:10:04.320> them<00:10:04.480> best<00:10:04.800> suited<00:10:05.279> to the things that make them best suited to
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the things that make them best suited to to<00:10:06.000> a<00:10:06.079> task to a task
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to a task if<00:10:06.720> we<00:10:06.880> look<00:10:07.040> at<00:10:07.120> caring<00:10:07.440> robots<00:10:07.920> they<00:10:08.800> don't if we look at caring robots they don’t
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if we look at caring robots they don’t necessarily<00:10:09.680> look necessarily look
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necessarily look exactly<00:10:10.720> like<00:10:10.959> humans<00:10:11.360> in<00:10:11.519> fact<00:10:11.680> they<00:10:11.839> look exactly like humans in fact they look
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exactly like humans in fact they look kind<00:10:12.320> of<00:10:12.959> far<00:10:13.200> from<00:10:13.440> it kind of far from it
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kind of far from it and<00:10:15.279> if<00:10:15.519> we<00:10:15.680> look<00:10:15.839> at<00:10:16.000> things<00:10:16.480> like and if we look at things like
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and if we look at things like robots<00:10:17.360> that<00:10:17.440> are<00:10:17.600> used<00:10:18.240> to<00:10:18.800> try<00:10:19.120> to robots that are used to try to
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robots that are used to try to have<00:10:21.519> a<00:10:21.600> sort<00:10:21.839> of<00:10:22.880> a<00:10:23.040> calming<00:10:23.519> or<00:10:23.680> a<00:10:23.760> friendly have a sort of a calming or a friendly
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have a sort of a calming or a friendly or<00:10:24.320> a<00:10:24.480> kind<00:10:24.640> of or a kind of
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or a kind of companion<00:10:26.079> type<00:10:26.320> relationship<00:10:26.880> with<00:10:26.959> a<00:10:27.040> human companion type relationship with a human
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companion type relationship with a human they’re<00:10:27.440> often<00:10:27.600> sort<00:10:27.760> of<00:10:28.160> animal they’re often sort of animal
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they’re often sort of animal robots<00:10:29.600> animatronic<00:10:30.079> robots<00:10:30.399> that<00:10:30.480> look<00:10:30.720> more robots animatronic robots that look more
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robots animatronic robots that look more like<00:10:31.360> a<00:10:31.440> pet<00:10:31.680> for<00:10:31.839> example<00:10:32.240> than like a pet for example than
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like a pet for example than a<00:10:33.519> human<00:10:38.279> being

[See bottom of page for full transcript of this video]
Mitigation for inherent bias in robotics and AI, including bias with its origin in colonialism is an important part of teaching and research because of its tangible and measurable effect on the success of robots and autonomous systems deployed in the real world. The agency of the human developer and the influence of any bias they may hold, intentional or unintentional, on the systems they work on is often overlooked. Failing to identify and act on this can negatively affect the success of robots and algorithms when deployed in the real world and can result in outcomes that discriminate against certain users.

Ongoing strategies to counter this at University of Bristol include initiatives in both research and teaching. In robotics research for example, we are engaging communities that are often overlooked in engineering in participatory research to co-author robot behaviours early on in the development process. In teaching we are introducing components of assignments that require students to identify and suggest mitigations for sources of discriminatory bias in their mathematical modelling and algorithms. Perhaps most importantly, we recognise that we are not coming from the perspective of a system that has got it right. By stimulating students to consider sources of bias in their work, our goal is to nurture the development of the next generation of engineers as individuals capable of developing solutions to current problems of discrimination in robotics and AI.

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