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Dilemmas of Collective Action

What is a collective action dilemma? In this video, Professor Mark Pennington describes an important concept in economics.
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how<00:00:17.840> should<00:00:18.000> we<00:00:18.160> understand<00:00:18.640> the<00:00:18.800> governance how should we understand the governance how should we understand the governance challenges challenges
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challenges that<00:00:20.640> underlie<00:00:21.119> problems<00:00:21.600> such<00:00:21.920> as<00:00:22.720> urban that underlie problems such as urban that underlie problems such as urban decay decay
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decay the<00:00:24.320> depletion<00:00:24.800> of<00:00:24.960> forests<00:00:25.439> and<00:00:25.599> fish<00:00:25.840> stocks the depletion of forests and fish stocks
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the depletion of forests and fish stocks and<00:00:26.640> climate<00:00:27.119> change and climate change
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and climate change from<00:00:28.480> an<00:00:28.560> economist<00:00:29.119> perspective<00:00:30.320> these from an economist perspective these
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from an economist perspective these problems<00:00:31.039> are<00:00:31.119> rooted<00:00:31.519> in problems are rooted in
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problems are rooted in collective<00:00:32.480> action<00:00:32.880> dilemmas<00:00:34.399> these<00:00:34.719> kind<00:00:34.960> of collective action dilemmas these kind of collective action dilemmas these kind of dilemmas dilemmas
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dilemmas underpin<00:00:36.480> many<00:00:36.640> of<00:00:36.800> the<00:00:36.880> most<00:00:37.120> pressing underpin many of the most pressing
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underpin many of the most pressing problems<00:00:38.079> facing<00:00:38.480> the<00:00:38.559> world<00:00:38.879> today problems facing the world today
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problems facing the world today and<00:00:39.840> they<00:00:40.079> occur<00:00:40.320> at<00:00:40.399> many<00:00:40.719> different<00:00:41.120> levels and they occur at many different levels
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and they occur at many different levels and<00:00:41.760> scales<00:00:42.239> of<00:00:42.399> society and scales of society
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and scales of society from<00:00:43.680> the<00:00:43.840> very<00:00:44.160> local<00:00:44.559> level<00:00:45.280> right<00:00:45.680> up<00:00:46.000> to from the very local level right up to
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from the very local level right up to the<00:00:46.399> global<00:00:46.879> level the global level
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the global level in<00:00:48.399> this<00:00:48.640> session<00:00:49.520> i'm<00:00:49.680> going<00:00:49.920> to<00:00:50.160> talk in this session i’m going to talk
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in this session i’m going to talk through<00:00:50.960> a<00:00:51.039> number<00:00:51.360> of<00:00:51.440> different<00:00:51.840> examples through a number of different examples
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through a number of different examples of<00:00:53.039> collective<00:00:53.600> action<00:00:53.920> dilemmas<00:00:54.559> to of collective action dilemmas to
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of collective action dilemmas to illustrate<00:00:55.280> their<00:00:55.520> nature illustrate their nature
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illustrate their nature then<00:00:57.199> in<00:00:57.280> the<00:00:57.440> next<00:00:57.760> session<00:00:58.480> we<00:00:58.640> can<00:00:58.879> start<00:00:59.120> to then in the next session we can start to
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then in the next session we can start to look<00:00:59.440> at<00:00:59.520> some<00:00:59.680> of<00:00:59.760> the<00:00:59.920> possible<00:01:00.399> solutions look at some of the possible solutions
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look at some of the possible solutions to<00:01:01.359> the<00:01:01.440> collective<00:01:02.000> action<00:01:02.239> dilemmas<00:01:03.359> with<00:01:03.600> a to the collective action dilemmas with a
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to the collective action dilemmas with a particular<00:01:04.320> focus particular focus
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particular focus on<00:01:04.879> what<00:01:05.199> eleanor<00:01:05.680> and<00:01:05.760> vincent<00:01:06.240> ostrom<00:01:06.880> would on what eleanor and vincent ostrom would
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on what eleanor and vincent ostrom would describe<00:01:07.600> as<00:01:07.840> self-governance<00:01:08.640> solutions describe as self-governance solutions
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describe as self-governance solutions so<00:01:10.560> what<00:01:10.720> do<00:01:10.880> we<00:01:11.040> mean<00:01:11.280> by<00:01:11.600> collective<00:01:12.080> action so what do we mean by collective action so what do we mean by collective action dilemmas dilemmas
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dilemmas collective<00:01:14.880> action<00:01:15.119> dilemmas<00:01:15.680> are collective action dilemmas are
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collective action dilemmas are characterized<00:01:17.040> by<00:01:17.200> a<00:01:17.360> set<00:01:17.600> of<00:01:17.759> incentives characterized by a set of incentives
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characterized by a set of incentives that<00:01:19.280> mean<00:01:19.759> whatever<00:01:20.159> an<00:01:20.320> individual<00:01:20.880> or that mean whatever an individual or
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that mean whatever an individual or organization<00:01:22.000> does organization does
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organization does in<00:01:22.560> relation<00:01:23.119> to<00:01:23.280> a<00:01:23.360> particular<00:01:23.920> problem in relation to a particular problem
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in relation to a particular problem makes<00:01:25.360> no<00:01:25.680> difference makes no difference
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makes no difference to<00:01:26.640> whether<00:01:26.960> that<00:01:27.200> problem<00:01:27.759> is<00:01:27.920> actually to whether that problem is actually to whether that problem is actually solved solved
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solved let’s<00:01:30.880> start<00:01:31.280> at<00:01:31.360> the<00:01:31.520> most<00:01:32.320> local<00:01:32.720> and let’s start at the most local and
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let’s start at the most local and perhaps<00:01:33.200> mundane<00:01:33.840> level perhaps mundane level
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perhaps mundane level with<00:01:34.799> a<00:01:34.880> problem<00:01:35.280> such<00:01:35.520> as<00:01:36.000> public<00:01:36.400> littering with a problem such as public littering
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with a problem such as public littering many<00:01:38.479> public<00:01:38.880> spaces<00:01:39.520> often<00:01:39.840> get<00:01:40.159> filled<00:01:40.400> with many public spaces often get filled with many public spaces often get filled with litter litter
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litter the<00:01:41.920> litter<00:01:42.320> is<00:01:42.479> unsightly<00:01:43.439> and<00:01:43.600> it's<00:01:43.759> very the litter is unsightly and it’s very
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the litter is unsightly and it’s very costly<00:01:44.399> for<00:01:44.560> the<00:01:44.640> public<00:01:44.960> authorities<00:01:45.520> to costly for the public authorities to costly for the public authorities to remove remove
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remove so<00:01:47.439> why<00:01:47.680> does<00:01:47.840> the<00:01:48.000> problem<00:01:48.399> persist so why does the problem persist
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so why does the problem persist arguably<00:01:51.200> it's<00:01:51.439> because<00:01:51.759> of<00:01:51.840> the<00:01:52.000> incentives arguably it’s because of the incentives
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arguably it’s because of the incentives that<00:01:53.200> face<00:01:53.520> the<00:01:53.680> individuals that face the individuals
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that face the individuals involved<00:01:55.520> in<00:01:55.759> generating<00:01:56.320> the<00:01:56.479> problem involved in generating the problem
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involved in generating the problem from<00:01:58.719> the<00:01:58.799> point<00:01:59.040> of<00:01:59.200> view<00:01:59.680> of<00:01:59.840> someone<00:02:00.159> who from the point of view of someone who
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from the point of view of someone who drops<00:02:00.799> litter drops litter
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drops litter their<00:02:02.880> personal<00:02:03.360> contribution<00:02:04.000> to<00:02:04.159> the their personal contribution to the
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their personal contribution to the overall<00:02:04.880> problem<00:02:05.439> of<00:02:05.600> public<00:02:06.000> littering overall problem of public littering
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overall problem of public littering is<00:02:06.960> very<00:02:07.280> small<00:02:08.720> dropping<00:02:09.119> the<00:02:09.280> odd is very small dropping the odd
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is very small dropping the odd plastic<00:02:10.399> bottle<00:02:11.120> or<00:02:11.360> drink<00:02:11.760> can<00:02:12.080> on<00:02:12.239> the plastic bottle or drink can on the plastic bottle or drink can on the street street
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street doesn’t<00:02:13.680> make<00:02:13.920> that<00:02:14.160> much<00:02:14.480> difference<00:02:14.879> to<00:02:15.040> the doesn’t make that much difference to the
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doesn’t make that much difference to the overall<00:02:15.599> amount<00:02:15.920> of<00:02:16.080> litter overall amount of litter
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overall amount of litter that<00:02:17.040> is<00:02:17.200> there<00:02:18.400> at<00:02:18.560> the<00:02:18.640> same<00:02:19.040> time<00:02:19.680> it<00:02:19.920> may that is there at the same time it may
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that is there at the same time it may save<00:02:20.480> the<00:02:20.640> person<00:02:21.040> in<00:02:21.120> question<00:02:21.520> the<00:02:21.680> time save the person in question the time
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save the person in question the time of<00:02:22.640> finding<00:02:22.959> a<00:02:23.120> litter<00:02:23.360> bin<00:02:23.680> or<00:02:23.840> the<00:02:24.000> trouble of finding a litter bin or the trouble
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of finding a litter bin or the trouble of<00:02:24.480> taking<00:02:24.800> the<00:02:24.959> litter<00:02:25.280> home of taking the litter home
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of taking the litter home at<00:02:27.200> the<00:02:27.360> same<00:02:27.680> time<00:02:28.560> if<00:02:28.800> the<00:02:28.959> person<00:02:29.680> does at the same time if the person does
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at the same time if the person does make<00:02:30.959> the<00:02:31.120> effort<00:02:31.599> to<00:02:31.840> find<00:02:32.160> a<00:02:32.239> bin<00:02:32.640> or<00:02:32.800> to<00:02:33.040> take make the effort to find a bin or to take
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make the effort to find a bin or to take the<00:02:33.360> litter<00:02:33.760> home the litter home
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the litter home there’s<00:02:35.120> nothing<00:02:35.440> to<00:02:35.519> stop<00:02:35.760> the<00:02:36.000> other<00:02:36.239> people there’s nothing to stop the other people
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there’s nothing to stop the other people who<00:02:37.040> use<00:02:37.280> the<00:02:37.440> street who use the street
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who use the street from<00:02:38.319> dropping<00:02:38.720> litter<00:02:39.280> and<00:02:39.440> contributing<00:02:40.080> to from dropping litter and contributing to
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from dropping litter and contributing to the<00:02:40.319> overall<00:02:40.800> problem the overall problem
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the overall problem in<00:02:42.560> these<00:02:42.800> circumstances<00:02:44.400> the<00:02:44.560> individual in these circumstances the individual in these circumstances the individual feels feels
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feels powerless<00:02:46.959> in<00:02:47.040> the<00:02:47.200> situation<00:02:48.560> it<00:02:48.720> makes<00:02:49.040> no powerless in the situation it makes no powerless in the situation it makes no difference difference
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difference how<00:02:50.560> they<00:02:50.800> behave<00:02:51.920> to<00:02:52.080> the<00:02:52.319> overall<00:02:52.720> problem how they behave to the overall problem
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how they behave to the overall problem of<00:02:53.280> public<00:02:53.680> littering of public littering
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of public littering economists<00:02:56.400> often<00:02:56.640> describe<00:02:57.440> these<00:02:57.760> kind<00:02:58.000> of economists often describe these kind of economists often describe these kind of situations situations
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situations as<00:02:59.440> involving<00:03:00.080> a<00:03:00.319> free<00:03:00.640> rider<00:03:01.440> problem as involving a free rider problem
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as involving a free rider problem and<00:03:02.720> this<00:03:02.959> problem<00:03:03.280> is<00:03:03.440> particularly and this problem is particularly
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and this problem is particularly pronounced<00:03:05.200> in<00:03:05.360> situations pronounced in situations
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pronounced in situations where<00:03:06.959> individuals<00:03:07.840> know<00:03:08.080> that<00:03:09.040> they<00:03:09.200> will where individuals know that they will
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where individuals know that they will get<00:03:09.760> away get away
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get away with<00:03:10.640> the<00:03:10.800> free-riding<00:03:11.440> behavior<00:03:12.400> that<00:03:12.560> there with the free-riding behavior that there
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with the free-riding behavior that there won’t<00:03:12.959> be<00:03:13.120> any<00:03:13.360> social<00:03:13.760> consequences<00:03:14.560> or won’t be any social consequences or won’t be any social consequences or punishments punishments
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punishments for<00:03:16.000> acting<00:03:16.400> in<00:03:16.480> this<00:03:16.840> way<00:03:17.920> now<00:03:18.080> of<00:03:18.239> course for acting in this way now of course
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for acting in this way now of course if<00:03:19.040> everybody<00:03:19.599> reasons<00:03:20.560> in<00:03:20.720> such<00:03:20.959> a<00:03:21.120> spirit if everybody reasons in such a spirit
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if everybody reasons in such a spirit then<00:03:22.400> the<00:03:22.560> problem<00:03:23.280> will<00:03:23.519> not<00:03:23.680> be<00:03:23.840> addressed then the problem will not be addressed
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then the problem will not be addressed in<00:03:25.040> this<00:03:25.280> case in this case
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in this case people<00:03:26.400> will<00:03:26.640> litter<00:03:27.360> and<00:03:27.519> the<00:03:27.680> streets<00:03:28.480> over people will litter and the streets over people will litter and the streets over time time
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time will<00:03:29.760> become<00:03:30.159> dirtier<00:03:30.640> and<00:03:30.840> dirtier<00:03:32.400> the will become dirtier and dirtier the
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will become dirtier and dirtier the conservation<00:03:33.280> of<00:03:33.440> forests<00:03:33.920> or<00:03:34.159> fish<00:03:34.400> stocks conservation of forests or fish stocks
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conservation of forests or fish stocks often<00:03:35.440> presents<00:03:35.840> the<00:03:36.000> same<00:03:36.319> kind<00:03:36.640> of<00:03:36.799> problem often presents the same kind of problem often presents the same kind of problem an an
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an individual<00:03:38.879> or<00:03:39.040> company<00:03:39.840> that<00:03:40.080> makes<00:03:40.319> their individual or company that makes their individual or company that makes their living living
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living from<00:03:41.760> cutting<00:03:42.239> trees<00:03:42.799> or<00:03:43.040> harvesting<00:03:43.680> fish from cutting trees or harvesting fish
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from cutting trees or harvesting fish may<00:03:45.120> reason<00:03:45.599> that<00:03:46.319> if<00:03:46.480> they<00:03:46.720> take<00:03:47.200> extra<00:03:47.599> trees may reason that if they take extra trees
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may reason that if they take extra trees or<00:03:48.239> fish or fish
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or fish there<00:03:49.040> will<00:03:49.280> still<00:03:49.519> be<00:03:49.760> plenty<00:03:50.159> left<00:03:50.640> for there will still be plenty left for
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there will still be plenty left for others<00:03:51.120> to<00:03:51.360> take others to take
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others to take if<00:03:53.200> on<00:03:53.360> the<00:03:53.439> other<00:03:53.680> hand<00:03:54.319> they<00:03:54.480> were<00:03:54.720> to<00:03:54.879> desist if on the other hand they were to desist
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if on the other hand they were to desist from<00:03:56.560> taking<00:03:57.200> the<00:03:57.439> trees<00:03:58.159> or<00:03:58.400> the<00:03:58.560> fish from taking the trees or the fish from taking the trees or the fish concerned concerned
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concerned then<00:04:00.239> they<00:04:00.400> would<00:04:00.640> simply<00:04:00.959> be<00:04:01.200> leaving<00:04:02.159> those then they would simply be leaving those then they would simply be leaving those resources resources
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resources for<00:04:03.519> other<00:04:03.840> actors<00:04:04.239> to<00:04:04.480> exploit<00:04:06.239> if for other actors to exploit if
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for other actors to exploit if all<00:04:07.040> of<00:04:07.120> the<00:04:07.280> individuals<00:04:07.920> or<00:04:08.159> companies all of the individuals or companies all of the individuals or companies involved involved
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involved in<00:04:10.159> harvesting<00:04:10.959> fish<00:04:11.439> or<00:04:11.680> in<00:04:11.840> forestry<00:04:12.720> think in harvesting fish or in forestry think
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in harvesting fish or in forestry think in<00:04:13.120> this<00:04:13.360> way in this way
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in this way then<00:04:14.319> pretty<00:04:14.720> soon<00:04:15.519> there'll<00:04:15.760> be<00:04:16.000> no<00:04:16.479> forests then pretty soon there’ll be no forests
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then pretty soon there’ll be no forests or<00:04:17.600> fish<00:04:18.000> for<00:04:18.160> people<00:04:18.400> to<00:04:18.560> harvest or fish for people to harvest
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or fish for people to harvest moving<00:04:21.199> up<00:04:21.280> to<00:04:21.440> a<00:04:21.519> still<00:04:21.840> higher<00:04:22.240> level<00:04:23.199> global moving up to a still higher level global
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moving up to a still higher level global environmental<00:04:24.400> problems environmental problems
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environmental problems such<00:04:25.440> as<00:04:25.600> climate<00:04:26.080> change<00:04:26.960> present<00:04:27.360> perhaps such as climate change present perhaps
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such as climate change present perhaps the<00:04:27.919> ultimate<00:04:28.400> collective<00:04:28.960> action<00:04:29.280> dilemmas the ultimate collective action dilemmas
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the ultimate collective action dilemmas people<00:04:31.600> and<00:04:31.759> countries<00:04:32.240> may<00:04:32.479> reason<00:04:32.800> to people and countries may reason to
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people and countries may reason to themselves<00:04:34.160> that<00:04:34.320> they<00:04:34.560> shouldn't<00:04:34.880> desist themselves that they shouldn’t desist
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themselves that they shouldn’t desist from<00:04:36.160> emitting<00:04:36.960> carbon<00:04:37.360> dioxide<00:04:38.560> because<00:04:38.880> if from emitting carbon dioxide because if
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from emitting carbon dioxide because if they<00:04:39.199> do<00:04:39.440> so they do so
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they do so it<00:04:40.400> will<00:04:40.639> fail<00:04:40.960> to<00:04:41.040> make<00:04:41.360> that<00:04:41.520> much it will fail to make that much
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it will fail to make that much difference<00:04:42.560> to<00:04:42.720> the<00:04:42.880> overall<00:04:43.360> problem difference to the overall problem
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difference to the overall problem and<00:04:44.560> in<00:04:44.639> the<00:04:44.800> meantime<00:04:45.919> there<00:04:46.080> will<00:04:46.160> be and in the meantime there will be
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and in the meantime there will be nothing<00:04:46.639> to<00:04:46.800> stop<00:04:47.199> other<00:04:47.440> countries nothing to stop other countries
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nothing to stop other countries from<00:04:48.400> emitting<00:04:48.800> the<00:04:48.960> carbon<00:04:49.280> dioxide<00:04:50.080> instead from emitting the carbon dioxide instead
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from emitting the carbon dioxide instead if<00:04:52.000> all<00:04:52.479> people<00:04:52.880> and<00:04:53.040> countries<00:04:53.520> reason<00:04:53.919> in if all people and countries reason in
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if all people and countries reason in this<00:04:54.320> way this way
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this way then<00:04:55.440> they<00:04:55.600> will<00:04:55.840> continue<00:04:56.320> to<00:04:56.479> produce then they will continue to produce
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then they will continue to produce carbon<00:04:57.440> dioxide carbon dioxide
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carbon dioxide and<00:04:58.560> the<00:04:58.800> climate<00:04:59.199> change<00:04:59.840> dilemma<00:05:00.639> will<00:05:00.960> fail and the climate change dilemma will fail
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and the climate change dilemma will fail to<00:05:01.360> be<00:05:01.520> addressed to be addressed
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to be addressed now<00:05:03.600> you<00:05:03.840> may<00:05:04.080> think<00:05:04.720> that<00:05:04.880> the<00:05:05.120> solution<00:05:05.680> to now you may think that the solution to
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now you may think that the solution to all<00:05:06.000> of<00:05:06.080> these all of these
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all of these collective<00:05:07.120> action<00:05:07.440> dilemmas<00:05:08.639> and<00:05:08.800> to<00:05:09.039> free collective action dilemmas and to free
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collective action dilemmas and to free riding<00:05:09.840> behavior riding behavior
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riding behavior in<00:05:10.639> particular<00:05:12.000> is<00:05:12.240> to<00:05:12.479> inculcate<00:05:13.199> in<00:05:13.440> people in particular is to inculcate in people
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in particular is to inculcate in people a<00:05:14.400> very<00:05:14.800> strong<00:05:15.440> moral<00:05:15.919> aversion<00:05:16.880> to<00:05:17.120> behaving a very strong moral aversion to behaving
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a very strong moral aversion to behaving in<00:05:17.759> this<00:05:18.080> way in this way
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in this way from<00:05:20.000> an<00:05:20.080> economist<00:05:20.639> perspective<00:05:21.199> however from an economist perspective however
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from an economist perspective however while<00:05:22.560> this<00:05:22.800> may<00:05:23.039> provide<00:05:23.759> part<00:05:24.240> of<00:05:24.400> the while this may provide part of the while this may provide part of the answer answer
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answer it<00:05:25.840> cannot<00:05:26.240> be<00:05:26.800> all<00:05:27.520> of<00:05:27.680> the<00:05:27.840> answer<00:05:28.400> to<00:05:28.639> this it cannot be all of the answer to this
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it cannot be all of the answer to this kind<00:05:29.199> of<00:05:29.360> problem kind of problem
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kind of problem the<00:05:30.960> reason<00:05:31.280> for<00:05:31.440> this<00:05:31.759> is<00:05:31.919> as<00:05:32.080> follows the reason for this is as follows
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the reason for this is as follows unless<00:05:34.240> you<00:05:34.400> live<00:05:34.639> in<00:05:34.720> a<00:05:34.880> society<00:05:35.919> where<00:05:36.240> all unless you live in a society where all
336.6
unless you live in a society where all people<00:05:37.039> are people are
337.4
people are equally<00:05:37.840> committed<00:05:38.639> to<00:05:38.800> the<00:05:38.960> moral<00:05:39.280> value<00:05:39.600> in equally committed to the moral value in equally committed to the moral value in question question
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question then<00:05:41.039> at<00:05:41.280> some<00:05:41.520> point<00:05:42.320> the<00:05:42.560> people<00:05:42.800> who<00:05:42.960> are then at some point the people who are
343.2
then at some point the people who are less<00:05:43.440> committed less committed
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less committed will<00:05:44.400> start<00:05:44.720> to<00:05:44.960> free<00:05:45.280> ride<00:05:46.400> and<00:05:46.639> as<00:05:46.880> they<00:05:47.120> do will start to free ride and as they do will start to free ride and as they do so so
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so this<00:05:48.400> will<00:05:48.639> start<00:05:48.960> to<00:05:49.199> shift<00:05:49.600> the<00:05:49.759> pattern<00:05:50.080> of this will start to shift the pattern of
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this will start to shift the pattern of incentives<00:05:51.120> for<00:05:51.360> everybody<00:05:51.840> else incentives for everybody else
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incentives for everybody else through<00:05:53.680> a<00:05:53.759> kind<00:05:54.000> of<00:05:54.160> rippling<00:05:54.720> effect through a kind of rippling effect through a kind of rippling effect gradually gradually
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gradually the<00:05:56.800> incentive<00:05:57.280> to<00:05:57.440> uphold<00:05:58.000> the<00:05:58.160> rules<00:05:58.720> will the incentive to uphold the rules will
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the incentive to uphold the rules will be<00:05:59.039> undermined be undermined
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be undermined and<00:06:00.400> we<00:06:00.560> will<00:06:00.720> be<00:06:00.880> left<00:06:01.120> with<00:06:01.280> a<00:06:01.440> situation and we will be left with a situation
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and we will be left with a situation where<00:06:02.560> only<00:06:02.880> those<00:06:03.199> who<00:06:03.360> are<00:06:03.440> the<00:06:03.600> very<00:06:03.919> most where only those who are the very most
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where only those who are the very most committed<00:06:04.720> to<00:06:04.880> the<00:06:04.960> moral<00:06:05.280> value committed to the moral value
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committed to the moral value will<00:06:06.319> continue<00:06:06.800> to<00:06:06.960> uphold<00:06:07.440> it<00:06:08.720> it<00:06:08.880> is<00:06:08.960> for will continue to uphold it it is for
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will continue to uphold it it is for this<00:06:09.440> reason this reason
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this reason that<00:06:10.080> we<00:06:10.240> may<00:06:10.400> need<00:06:10.639> to<00:06:10.800> rely<00:06:11.280> on<00:06:11.440> institutions that we may need to rely on institutions
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that we may need to rely on institutions of<00:06:12.319> governance of governance
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of governance and<00:06:13.360> mechanisms<00:06:14.000> for<00:06:14.240> enforcing<00:06:14.800> them<00:06:15.360> that and mechanisms for enforcing them that
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and mechanisms for enforcing them that go<00:06:15.840> beyond<00:06:16.319> relying<00:06:16.800> on<00:06:17.120> strong<00:06:17.520> moral go beyond relying on strong moral go beyond relying on strong moral beliefs beliefs
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beliefs the<00:06:19.759> question<00:06:20.240> is<00:06:20.800> what<00:06:21.120> kind<00:06:21.360> of<00:06:21.680> rules<00:06:22.160> can the question is what kind of rules can
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the question is what kind of rules can perform<00:06:22.880> this<00:06:23.120> function perform this function
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perform this function and<00:06:24.319> can<00:06:24.560> they<00:06:24.720> be<00:06:24.960> supplied<00:06:25.600> in<00:06:25.759> a and can they be supplied in a
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and can they be supplied in a self-governing<00:06:26.720> manner self-governing manner
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self-governing manner this<00:06:28.240> will<00:06:28.400> be<00:06:28.479> the<00:06:28.639> topic<00:06:28.960> that<00:06:29.120> we<00:06:29.280> address this will be the topic that we address
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this will be the topic that we address in<00:06:30.000> our<00:06:30.160> next<00:06:32.840> session you

Before we explore how self-governing institutions function, we need to consider the problems they are meant to address. In this video, we discuss what economists call collective action dilemmas.

These dilemmas arise in almost all areas of social life where communities must share resources. Such resources include parks, forests, oceans, or even the air we breathe. They can also include more abstract concepts in which we are all stakeholders, like public health or public safety.

Without governance rules to structure how we manage these shared assets, they can fall into disrepair. Depending on what asset we’re talking about, this can mean ecological ruin, greater crime waves or susceptibility to epidemics. The reason we might witness these forms of institutional dysfunction is that people might lack the proper incentives to take care of the assets in question.

In this video, we’ll dig into why incentives matter and how different kinds of governance arrangements can help re-structure incentives to produce more sustainable outcomes.

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The Ideal of Self-Governance: Public Policy Beyond Markets and States

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