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Glossary

Glossary
© Keio University

We have included this glossary for reference, you are not expected to remember all the new terms.

You can refer to the glossary throughout the course by returning to this step or by downloading the PDF version which is available from the Downloads section below.

If you come across any other words that you would like us to add to the glossary, please add them to the comments.

The number in the [] refers to the step number in which the word appears. (e.g., [2.3] → Step 2.3 of Week 2)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

  • ASAKURA, Fumio(朝倉文夫): (1883-1964) A prominent figure in the world of Japanese carving and sculpture, active from the Meiji to the Showa period. Asakura came to Tokyo from Oita Prefecture, and enrolled in the Sculpture Department of the Tokyo Fine Arts School. While still a student in 1906, he attracted attention by winning a competition from the Ministry of the Navy. He won numerous prizes, primarily in Bunten competitions, and established the Asakura School of Plastic Arts. During the confusion surrounding reorganization of the Teiten (Imperial Art Exhibition), he established the Asakura School of Plastic Arts Exhibition as a venue for presenting artworks, and he also worked on outdoor exhibitions. During World War II, he played a coordinating role with the national government, and afterwards worked hard to revive exhibitions sponsored by the government. His clay figures of the human form, crafted with strong modeling skills, are extremely refined, and he also produced many portrait sculptures using those skills. [1.04]
  • Ash: Lumber made from a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the ash genus of the olive family. [2.04][2.05]

B

  • Banraisha(萬來舎): A social club built adjacent to the Enzetsu-kan by Fukuzawa in 1876. This was a place for faculty and students of Keio, and people from outside the university, to freely gather. In 1945, it was dismantled to prevent the spread of fire, but the remains still burned. After the war, “Banraisha” became the nickname of the Noguchi Room, whose design was cognizant of the original Banraisha. [1.06][1.07][2.11]
  • Bollingen Foundation: A foundation established in 1945 by the wealthy American Paul Mellon (1907-1999). Until its activities were halted in 1968, it made grants and published books with the aim of advancing the humanities. [1.06]
  • Constantin Brâncuşi: (1876-1957) Romanian sculptor. In his art, Brâncuşi extracted only the key elements and essence of his subjects in simple forms, and finished these into structural artworks. His approach had a tremendous impact on abstract sculpture and minimalist art in the 20th century. Representative works include the Bird in Space and Endless Column series. [1.05]

C

  • Chishiki no Kaben(智識の花弁 Petal of Knowledge:
    Yoshikuni Iida, 1982, Stainless steel Iida produced this work at the request of Fumihiko Maki at the completion of the Keio University Library. Iida regarded Maki’s building as a “kaleidoscopic structure of transparent space,” and to fit in with that he created an “image of a large flower blooming in the darkness of twilight.” Due to the rotation of mirror-polished stainless steel, the artwork ceaselessly changes like a kaleidoscope. Since the library causes knowledge to bloom in the future, it corresponds well with Iida’s image of flower petals in terms of function as well. [1.04]

D

  • Democracy(デモクラシー):
    Genichiro Inokuma, 1949, Oil painting on linden plywood, on the Keio University Mita Campus At the request of the architect Yoshiro Taniguchi, Inokuma produced this work as murals for the east and west walls of the Student Hall (designed by Taniguchi and completed in 1949) on the Mita Campus of Keio University, designed by Taniguchi. In 1950, it won the Mainichi Art Award. When the Student Hall was demolished, the paintings were moved to the cafeteria in the West School Building. The paintings were restored in 1992 and 2009. [2.01]
  • Michel Desvigne: (1958- ) French landscape designer. To achieve a refined landscape, he eliminates decorative elements, leaving no trace of showiness, and yet achieves distinctive landscape designs based on strict concepts. In the garden of the Ex-Noguchi Room, he combined the old form with new, as was done in the interior of the room, by transplanting the image of the garden of the Second Faculty Building. [1.12]

E

  • Ex-Noguchi Room(旧ノグチ・ルーム): Name used after the Noguchi Room was partially relocated to the new school building in 2003. After relocation, the conversation lounge no longer adhered to Noguchi’s original concept of having sculptures and gardens present around the room, and thus a different name is used. [1.01][1.10][1.12][1.14][1.17][2.01][2.03][2.04][2.05][2.06][2.07][2.08][2.10][2.12][2.13][2.14][2.15][2.16][2.18]
  • Exercise of Troops in a Temple Grounds in the Presence of the Imperial Commissioners(ペリー提督黒船陸戦隊訓練の図):
    Attributed to Peter B. William Heine, from around the end of the 19th century, oil and canvas, Keio Gijuku Oil painting by William Heine, the artist accompanying Perry’s squadron, almost exactly matching a lithograph in the lithograph collection Graphic Scenes in the Japan Expedition. It realistically depicts troops engaged in exercises, and the Japanese watching them. Keio’s collection includes one more piece by Heine, Return of Commodore Perry, with Officers and Squadron, from an Official Visit to the Prince Regent at Shuri, Capital of Lewkyu (oil and canvas). [2.03]

F

  • First School Building(第一校舎): A building by the Sone-Chujo Architect’s Office. Completed in 1934. It is located at the center of the Mita Campus, and was planned to emphasize harmony with the Old Library and Jukukan-kyoku standing nearby. In terms of exterior and interior appearance, it is characterized by simple construction, but structurally-unnecessary buttresses are placed decoratively on the outer walls. At the center of the building are stairwells in a three-level atrium, and there are classrooms along the central corridors. At first, it was called the University Faculty Building (or the New Building), but after the war, it came to be called the First School Building. [1.04][1.13][2.13]
  • FUKUZAWA, Yukichi(福澤諭吉): (1835-1901) Educator and thinker from the Edo to the Meiji period. Founder of Keio. He entered the Tekijuku in Osaka in 1855, aspiring to learn rangaku (Dutch studies). After that, he went to Edo, learned English through self-study, and became engrossed in studying English books. In 1867, he founded Keio Gijuku. He took an independent stance based on modern thought, and regarded cultivation of free individuals (dokuritsu-jison, or independence and self-respect) as the departure point for enlightenment. His works as an author include: An Encouragement of Learning and An Outline of a Theory of Civilization. [1.04][1.07][1.12][2.11]

G

  • Gakusei (学生 Student):
    Isamu Noguchi, 1951, Cast iron rods This work is built from iron ribs and reaches a height of 4 m. They say the concept behind the work was of a student flipping open a Japanese folding book. Noguchi talked about Gakusei in combination with fire lookout towers in the art magazine Geijutsu Shincho. If we also consider that one could see the fire lookout tower of the Shiba Fire Station from the Banraisha at this time, Noguchi’s father’s poem mentioning the fire bell warning of an air raid, and the Hiroshima Bell Tower which has a similar form, we see that Gakusei is full of Noguchi’s ideas on peace and students’ futures.[1.04]
  • Gakusei hall(学生ホール): A facility for students designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi and built on the Mita Campus. It was completed in 1949. It contained a student cafeteria, rooms for the student affairs department and the student council, and other student-related functions. The paintings Democracy by Genichiro Inokuma were installed on both the east and west walls of the atrium-style student cafeteria located at the center of the building. Together with the Third School Building, the Student Hall was awarded the Architectural Institute of Japan’s first AIJ Prize. In 1960, the hall was relocated to the north side of the campus to make way for construction of the West School Building, and was demolished when the North Building was constructed in 1992. [1.07]
  • Giyōhū Architecture (擬洋風建築 Pseudo-Western Architecture): Buildings with a Western architectural style, built by relying on Japanese traditional architectural techniques and dating from the end of the Edo period to the early Meiji period. Master carpenters—who actively traveled to open ports and absorbed new knowledge—created new forms of architectural expression by applying the sophisticated architectural techniques they had previously cultivated. In many cases, the buildings have left-right symmetry, a tower in the center, and Japanese-style design details. This bold eclecticism of East and West is one aspect of civilization and enlightenment. [1.04]
  • Gothic Revival architecture: A style of historicist architecture, popular in Europe and America from the late 18th to the 19th century, in which past architectural styles were used in a revivalist fashion. Europe adopted the Gothic style, which peaked around the 13th to 15th century in Europe. Characteristics of this style were a highly decorative appearance and vertical extension, and it was called “neo-Gothic.” At Keio, this is the style of the Old Library and the Daikodo (Large Hall, no longer extant) that were designed by the Sone-Chujo Architect’s Office. [1.04]
  • Graduate School Building(大学院校舎): As part of projects commemorating the 125th anniversary of the founding of Keio, this building was built in 1985 on the former site of the Third Faculty Building on the Mita Campus, with a design by Fumihiko Maki. The design provides an expansive courtyard, and takes harmony between buildings into account by, for example, positioning the second-floor entrance pilotis directly facing the pilotis of the Keio University Library. In light of the fact that many people come and go on the first, second, and third floor, there is some decorativeness provided by numerous openings and exposed concrete, but in the research space on the 4th floor and above, the vertically-long windows are arranged in a regular fashion, and the tile size varies so that the interior and exterior construction are related to each other. [1.04][2.13]
  • Great Kanto earthquake of 1923: An earthquake disaster that struck the Kanto region in 1923. The number of dead and missing surpassed 100,000, and the economy was severely affected. [1.04]

H

  • Hangaku Hankyo(半学半教): Keio’s philosophy that both faculty and students teach half the time and learn half the time. [1.08]
  • Peter B.W. Heine: (1827-1885) Artist who accompanied Commodore Perry. Heine was born on the outskirts of Dresden in Germany, and studied at the Royal Academy of Art in Dresden. After fleeing to the United States, he became the painter accompanying Perry, and painted scenes of the expedition. Woodprints and lithographs based on images produced by Heine were used as illustrations in the Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, the official record of the expedition. [2.03]
  • Heiwa Kitaru (平和来 Coming of Peace):
    Fumio Asakura, 1952, bronze This body of a youth, sculpted to be muscular yet graceful, shows Asakura—whose special artistic forte was expression of the nude body—at his best. As indicated by the title Heiwa Kitaru, this statue was installed to console the spirits of those Keio students who never came home after student mobilization in World War II. The inscription by Shinzo Koizumi carved on its base says: “To days of peace on a hilltop. In memory of those who left but never returned.” This well expresses his thoughts about the death of students who were sent to the front, and of his own son.[1.04]
  • HIJIKATA, Tatsumi(土方巽): (1928-1986) Hijikata was a Butoh dancer and choreographer. Those interested in this topic should check out [this course] (/courses/japanese-avant-garde-art-butoh/5) focusing on Butoh and Hijikata. [1.14][2.14]
  • Hiyoshi (Campus)(日吉): A campus of Keio University located in Hiyoshi, Kanagawa Prefecture. Construction began in 1930, and classes started in 1934. These classes were part of a university preparatory course. In 1944, the campus was loaned to the Combined Fleet headquarters, and facilities like underground bunkers were added. After the war, the U.S. military lodged here, and the campus was returned in 1949. At present, there is a high school, and all first-year undergraduates study at Hiyoshi. School buildings designed by the Sone-Chujo Architect’s Office, and a dormitory designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi, are still in use today. [1.13]
  • Hoshi eno Shingo(星への信号 Signal to the Stars:
    Yoshikuni Iida, 1984, Stainless steel A work of kinetic art that moves in the wind, created by Iida as a commemorative work from graduates in the class of 1983. When we consider the title Signal to the Stars and Iida’s own words stating that the stainless-steel rods, placed facing the sky and changing position moment to moment, are “mediators between the infinite and the earth,” we can regard the work as an antenna for communicating signals from the infinite to human beings, and communicating the hopes of human beings to the infinite. [1.04]

I

  • IDA, Yoshikuni(飯田善国): (1923-2006) Artist. After graduating from Keio University, Iida entered the Department of Painting at the Tokyo University of the Arts. His instructors included Ryuzaburo Umehara. After studying abroad in Rome and Vienna, Iida began creating sculptures in earnest in 1961. He is widely known inside and outside Japan for his chromatophilologia, which integrate color and language through his own logic and are expressed with metal and colored rope, as well as for his outdoor sculptures made of stainless steel. He also executed planar works such as oil paintings, prints, and collages. [1.04]
  • INOKUMA, Genichiro(猪熊弦一郎): (1902-1993) Painter. Inokuma came to Tokyo from Marugame in Kagawa Prefecture, and entered the Western Painting Department of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. There, he studied under Takeji Fujishima. In 1925 he was selected for the Teiten (Imperial Art Exhibition). In response to reorganization of the Teiten, he established the Shinseisaku-ha Society in 1936, which was the focus of his subsequent activities. In 1955, he traveled to the U.S. and continued his creative activities in New York. He was a leading post-war abstract artist, combining bright colors with abstracted forms. He painted Democracy for the Student Hall at Keio University. [1.05][1.06][2.01]

J

  • Jisonkan(自尊館): This is a lecture hall built on the site of the Yochisha (elementary school) at Tengen-ji temple in 1964, as a project commemorating the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Keio Yochisha. Like the main building, this hall was designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi. It has a floor plan like a fan, with a stage at the fan’s pivot, as well as a diffusive ceiling with an inverted pyramidal shape, and sound-absorbent chairs. Overall height of the building is reduced by excavating into the ground, and the second-floor part—which protrudes out using a cantilever beam—and the series of long vertical windows are excellent expressions of the unique characteristics of Taniguchi’s architecture. [1.07]
  • Jukukan-kyoku(塾監局): The old Jukukan-kyoku was demolished due to damage sustained in the Great Kanto Earthquake, and rebuilt in 1926. Like the Old Library, the design was by the Sone-Chujo Architect’s Office, one of Japan’s leading architecture firms at the time. In terms of appearance, its keynotes are scratched tile and terra cotta, and it is designed with left-right symmetry and an entrance porch in the center. The name derives from “Jukukan,” a term used when Yukichi Fukuzawa was studying at the Tekijuku. Jukukan is the name of the building, and at the same time connotes management of all aspects of the administration of Keio. [1.04][2.13]

K

  • Kanagawa(神奈川): Prefecture just to the south of Tokyo. The location of Keio University’s Hiyoshi Campus, Yagami Campus, Shonan Fujisawa Campus, and other facilities. [1.05]
  • Katsura Imperial Villa(桂離宮): A palace and gardens in Kyoto, connected with the Imperial Household. It was built as a villa for the Hachijo-no-miya family in the 17th century. Expansive gardens and buildings are laid out on a site of approximately 70,000 m², and the culture of the Imperial Court in the early Edo period is evident, even today. The design is rich in Japanese spirit, with the gardens and buildings forming an integrated, organic whole. Architects such as Walter Gropius(1883-1969 founder of the Bauhaus School) and Bruno Taut(1880-1938 known for theoretical work) admired it. [1.06][1.08]
  • Keio Girls Senior High School(慶應義塾女子高): A building for the Girls Senior High School, newly established at Keio after the war. It was built in 1951 by Yoshiro Taniguchi. A hipped roof is situated on a box-shaped frame evocative of modern architecture, thus standing out from the other Taniguchi buildings on the Mita Campus, whose roofs are horizontal. In addition, the large windows arranged in the atrium space of the facade break up the simple two-level structure of the building’s outer appearance. On the other hand, there is an awareness of continuity with other buildings at Keio, in features such as the series of vertically-long windows. (No longer extant) [1.04]
  • Keio University Art Center(慶應義塾大学アート・センター): A research center attached to Keio University, established in 1993. This center engages in a wide range of theoretical research and practical activities, without being partial to any specific field, idea, or theoretical system. Its theme is the role of artistic activities in modern society, seen from a perspective of interdisciplinarity exploitation of the unique characteristics of a multi-disciplinary educational institution, i.e., of synthesizing results from various academic fields. The center is also engaged in preservation/restoration of artworks at the university. [1.01][1.11][1.13][1.14][1.17][2.06][2.12][2.13][2.14][2.15][2.16][2.18]
  • Keio University Hiyoshi Dormitory(慶應義塾日吉寄宿舎): Dormitories built on the plateau which juts out to the south side of the Hiyoshi Campus. These were designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi at the same time as the Yochisha. There are three buildings, made up mainly of straight lines with minimal ornamentation, and they faithfully employ the structural language of the modernist architecture (“International style”) which was popular throughout the world at that time. The dormitories were used by the Combined Fleet in 1943, and by the U.S. military after the war. After the buildings were returned, only one was used as a dormitory. In 2012, the South Dormitory was renovated, and continues to be used today by student residents. [1.01][1.04][1.07][1.13]
  • Keio University International Center(慶應義塾国際センター): An organization with the objective of developing international exchange, established in 1964. [2.11]
  • The Keio University Library(慶應義塾図書館(新館)): This library was planned as part of projects commemorating the 125th anniversary of the founding of Keio, and completed in 1981 with a design by Fumihiko Maki. At completion of this building, the main library functions were transferred from the Old Library. The new library boasts a huge collection of books, and has become the core of learning at Keio. Using a modular structure, the simple yet complex outer form smoothly blends in with the campus central plaza, and the plaza in front of the Old Library. Ample windows and atrium space in the interior make this a pleasant place to be. [1.04][2.13]
  • KIKUCHI, Kazuo(菊池一雄): (1908-1985) Sculptor. After graduating from high school, he entered the Aesthetics and History of Art Division, Faculty of Letters, Tokyo Imperial University (today, The University of Tokyo). He exhibited in the Nikaten and other shows, and won many awards. In 1936, he traveled to Europe, studied at the academy, and exhibited at the Salon d’Automne and other venues. After returning to Japan, he became a member of the Shinseisaku-ha Society in 1951. After serving in the military, he became a professor at the Tokyo University of the Arts while continuing his creative activities, and mentored many younger sculptors. He expressed the diversity of spatiality through poses of human bodies with a rounded sense of volume. [1.05][1.07]
  • KENMOCHI, Isamu(剣持勇): (1912-1971) Interior designer. In 1932, Kenmochi joined the National Research Institute of Industrial Arts of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, and studied under the architect Bruno Taut when he came to Japan. In 1950, he provided studio space to Isamu Noguchi during his time in Japan, and they jointly produced a braided chair made of bamboo. Later, he struck out on his own and established Kenmochi Design Associates. He pursued the principle of “Japanese modern” that he himself advocated. [2.05]
  • Kyoto(京都): Name of the area surrounding today’s Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture in the Kinki region. Kyoto served continuously as the capital of Japan after the capital was moved to Heiankyo in 794, and the Emperor resided there until the Meiji period. It has always had a deep connection with Japanese history, and it is the Japanese city which today retains the most traditional culture, particularly the culture of the Imperial Court. As the center of Japanese traditional culture, it is visited by many people from inside and outside Japan every year. [1.06][1.08]

L

  • Law School Building (South Building)(法科大学院棟(南館)): A building completed on the Mita Campus in 2005, and known officially as the South Building. It was designed by Taisei Corporation. The Second Faculty Building was demolished, and this building was constructed, in order to establish a law school under the law school system instituted in the year before construction was completed. The Ex-Noguchi Room was relocated to the third-floor terrace of this building, and Noguchi’s sculptures Mu, Wakai Hito, and Gakusei, previously in the garden of the Second Faculty Building, have been installed in the South Building. [1.11][1.12]

M

  • MAKI, Fumihiko(槇文彦): (1928- ) Internationally-active modern architect. A product of Keio, he attended the University of Tokyo, studied abroad at Harvard, and later taught there. In 1965, he established Maki and Associates. The distinguishing feature of his work is an “empathetic humanism” that creates architecture by thinking through the environment and contrasts where buildings are placed, and what users will do inside and outside the building. At Keio, he designed the Keio University Library (1981) and Graduate School Building (1985) on the Mita Campus, as well as the Hiyoshi Library (1985), SFC (1990-1994), and other buildings. [1.04]
  • Meiji Era(明治時代): Name of the Japanese era from 1868 to 1911. [1.07]
  • Minato city(港区): One of the 23 administrative divisions of Tokyo (known as ku in Japanese, and cities in English). The city faces Tokyo Bay, and is the location of Keio University’s Mita Campus. The city has many extant traditional structures, such as Buddhist temples, as well as modern buildings. It also has flourishing cultural activities. [2.14]
  • Mita (Campus)(三田): Name of a place in Tokyo, Japan. The original campus of Keio is located here. At the time Keio was founded, there was a residence of the Shimabara Han (Domain) on the plateau where the current campus is located. Fukuzawa was thinking of relocating from Shibashinsenza(芝新銭座), and negotiated with Tokyo Prefecture. By borrowing again, after limitation of the proprietary rights for the residence, he relocated from Shibashinsenza in 1871. In the following year, the land in Mita was sold to Keio. [1.04][1.05][1.07][1.08][1.11][1.14][2.12][2.13]
  • Mita Enzetsu-kan(三田演説館): A lecture hall built on the Mita Campus of Keio University in 1875 by Yukichi Fukuzawa. This is a precious example of pseudo-Western architecture, built by referring to documents on public assembly hall architecture brought from America. Its unique characteristic is the coexistence of Japanese-style namako walls, and a Western-style porch. Inside, there is a two-level atrium, with the second-floor part serving as a gallery. [1.04][1.07][1.08][1.11][1.12][2.13]
  • Modern Architecture: An architecture style established after the industrial revolution, in the latter half of the 19th century. Due to technological innovation, people looked for new expressions, actively using new construction materials such as steel and concrete. In contrast to historicist architecture, which relativizes and uses previous styles, modern architecture arose as a sort of “non-style” based on functionalism and rationalism. This became established as a style with the rise of greater internationalism, and after World War II, became popular in Japan as well. [1.04][1.07][1.08][1.12][1.13][1.14]
  • Mu (無 Nothingness): Isamu Noguchi, 1950-51, Shirakawa-ishi (a type of white granite) Mu used a surrealistic structural language, just like Wakai Hito, and it is an excellent expression of Noguchi’s idea of the “harmony of sculpture and the surrounding environment.” This is because the sculpture was placed on the west side of the Noguchi room, and when the setting sun was captured in the sculpture’s circular hole, it became a sort of stone lantern, just as Noguchi intended. Even though there is nothing inside Mu, it is said that Noguchi envisioned a sort of “mirror” which shows various forms depending on the person looking. It is not just a simple circle. The two ends are slightly shifted, and the sculpture has various expressions depending on the viewing angle. [1.04][1.06][1.08][1.10][1.12][2.03]

N

  • Nara(奈良): Name of a city in the Kinki region. Seat of the Nara prefectural government. The central government of Japan was located here from the Kofun period to the Nara period. In the era when the capital was transferred to Heijo-kyo (710-784), Nara was the center of Japan, and many temples were built. At present, Nara is home to Todai-ji, other Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, as well as many cultural facilities such as the Nara National Museum. [1.06]
  • Nezu Museum(根津美術館): A museum designed by Kengo Kuma which primarily exhibits Japanese artworks. Completed in 2009. It has an expansive garden despite being located in the Tokyo city center. Through a building with large openings, using curtain walls of glass instead of an enclosed concrete box, Kuma tries to create an environment which integrates the garden, building, and artworks. [1.12]
  • NOGUCHI, Yonejiro(野口米次郎): (1875-1947) Poet and father of Isamu Noguchi. He dropped out of Keio and traveled to the U.S. Isamu was his son with an American woman who helped him produce English poetry as Yone Noguchi, but he left Isamu and his mother and returned to Japan. He married a Japanese woman and became a professor of English literature at Keio University. When Isamu was two years old, he came to Japan with his mother and lived near Yonejiro, but he suffered discrimination as a half-Japanese, and returned to the U.S. when he was 13 to become an artist. Due to this background, Isamu came to feel both compassion and aversion toward his father. [1.05][1.06]

O

  • Oak: Lumber made from deciduous broad-leaved trees in the oak genus of the beech family. [2.04]
  • Old Library(慶應義塾図書館旧館): A library built to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of Keio. It was designed by the Sone-Chujo Architect’s Office, and completed on the Mita Campus in 1912. It was a Gothic Revival building incorporating the Queen Anne style that Tatsuzo Sone saw in England. The contrast between the vibrant red brick and white decorative stone made the building a dignified symbol of the university, and the building used to rise over the Main Gate (today’s East Gate). It suffered war damage, and has undergone many improvements and repairs, but is still in use as a library today. The part constituting the original building was designated as an important cultural property in 1969. [1.04][2.13]
  • OSANAI, Kaoru(小山内薫): Playwright and director (1881-1928). Together with Kafu Nagai and others, Osanai joined the Department of Literature at Keio University in 1910, and was in charge of dramatic literature. Through the literary magazine Mita Bungaku and other activities, he played a key role in the Mita literary circle. In 1924, he left teaching, but in May of that year, a lecture at the Mita Great Hall organized by the Keio University Drama Research Group inspired him to create the Tsukiji Shogekijo Theatre. [1.04]

P

  • Panel Heating: A system where heat-radiating pipes or heat-generating panels are embedded in the floor, etc. Heat is produced by passing air or hot water through the system, thereby heating a room with radiant heat. [1.07][1.13]
  • Postmodern Architecture: An architectural style which arose from criticism of modernist architecture, with its strong orientation toward functionalism and rationalism, and declining quality due to uniformity driven by factors such as mass production. The decoration, symbolism, historicism and other elements eliminated by modernist architecture were reevaluated, and reintroduced. This style was particularly popular in the 1980s. [1.12]

Q

R

  • Rattan: Generic name for plants in the Calamoideae subfamily of the palm family which grow climbing stems. Rattan is tough and flexible, and used in various types of furniture and tools. [2.05]
  • Renaissance Revival architecture: A technique of historicist architecture, employing past architectural styles in a revivalist manner, popular in Europe and the U.S. from the latter 18th to the 19th century. It uses architectural styles from the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th century, and features structures with left-right symmetry, semi-circular arches, and a simple, stately appearance compared to Gothic Revival. It is also called Neo-Renaissance. At Keio, the Jukukan-kyoku is built in this style. [1.04]
  • Renovation: Providing added value by performing large-scale renovation of existing buildings, and improving performance by changing applications or functions. Simultaneous maintenance and use is effective for preserving buildings, and thus initiatives are being carried out at various locations to renovate historical buildings and use them in new applications. [1.03][1.07][1.13]
  • Roman bath: An independent bath attached to the Keio University Hiyoshi Dormitories. This too was designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi. In the center of the circular bathing room, there is a circular bathing pool, and circular columns are lined up around the perimeter. Like the dormitories, this facility was used by the U.S. military after the war, with the bath was used as a bar and dance floor. Today, it is almost in ruins, and it awaits renovation. [1.13]
  • Rush: A monocotyledonous plant in the rush family. It takes root from an underground stem in the mud, and issues numerous above ground stems. The stem part is harvested, dried, and used to manufacture things like tatami mat facing and matting. [1.08][2.05]

S

  • Scrap and Build: Scrapping deteriorated facilities or equipment, and replacing with new, high-efficiency equipment. [1.12]
  • Scraper: Tool with a handle attached to a spatula-shaped blade. [2.04]
  • Second School Building(第二校舎): The first building constructed on the Mita Campus to address the severe shortage of buildings after the war. Completed in 1949. Yoshiro Taniguchi built the structure by using, as is, the brick foundation of the old No. 5 Building which still remained as a burnt ruin. The Second School Building had 10 classrooms on the first and second floor, and this was the initial core of education in the post-war period. In 1980, the building was demolished to make way for construction of the Keio University Library. [1.07][1.13]
  • Seinenzo(青年像 Yourth:
    Kazuo Kikuchi, 1948, Bronze Statue of a youth, right hand to his chin, left hand hanging down, looking downward with a melancholy expression. The model was a youth from Tohoku. He aspired to be a singer, but his throat was damaged during his military service, and he had to give up his dream. Kikuchi said “I was drawn to him. He had a dark shadow, as though he had lost himself in the void of war.” Striving for a harmonious combination of architecture and sculpture, Yoshiro Taniguchi placed Seinenzo in front of the Third School Building he designed. [1.04][1.05][1.07][2.03]
  • Sen No Rikyu(千利休): (1522-1591) A merchant and tea master from the Sengoku period to the Azuchi-Momoyama period. He served Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and had a tremendous impact on the popularity of the tea ceremony among the Sengoku generals. Instead of expensive tea utensils like those from China, he used Chinese porcelain for ordinary use and Japanese-made tea utensils. He also designed his own tea utensils like Raku ware. He perfected wabicha, a style of tea ceremony emphasizing simplicity and spirituality. [1.07]
  • Seto City(瀬戸市): A city in Aichi Prefecture. High-quality clay is produced in this region, which has been called Seto since ancient times. It is thought that a kiln already existed around the 5th century. Seto-yaki (Seto ware) is the general name for pottery produced in this area, and it is one of the Six Ancient Kilns of Japan that still exist today. In the Azuchi-Momoyama period (16th century), the region began to produce diverse wares as the tea ceremony spread more widely. [1.06]
  • Shimabara-han(島原藩): During the Edo period, this clan controlled the Shimabara region of Hizen Province (today, this is the area around Shimabara in Nagasaki Prefecture). The lord of the domain had a residence in the Mita area. [1.04]
  • Shinseisaku-ha Society(新制作派): In 1936, Inokuma and other young artists opposed to the “Matsuda Reorganization” established this as a society which severed ties with government-sponsored exhibitions, and rejected politics. A Sculpture Section was added in 1939, and an Architecture Section in 1949. Every year, a Shinseisaku Ten exhibition is held at the Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum and the National Art Center, Tokyo. The current name of the organization is the Shinseisaku Society. [1.06]
  • Shisen-do(詩仙堂): A mountain retreat where Jozan Ishikawa (1583-1672), a member of the literati in the early Edo period, spent his later years in retirement. Completed in 1641. The original name was “Ototsuka,” meaning a dwelling built on uneven land. In the center is the Shisen Room, adorned with portraits of 36 Chinese poets, thus giving rise to the name Shisen-do. Today, it is a temple of the Soto sect of Zen Buddhism. [1.06][1.08]
  • Showa era(昭和時代): Name of the Japanese era from 1926 to 1989.
  • solvent type acrylic paint: Paint into which pigment is kneaded, with acrylic resin dissolved in pigment as the vehicle. [2.05]
  • Sone Chujo architects(曽根中條建築事務所): An architectural office jointly established by Tatsuzo Sone (1853-1937), one of the first Japanese architects to graduate from the Architecture Department of the Imperial College of Engineering (today, the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo) and his younger colleague Seiichiro Chujo (1868-1936). The office designed genuine Western-style buildings throughout Japan. At Keio, the office built the Old Library, First School Building, and Daikodo (no longer extant) at Mita, and well as school buildings on the Hiyoshi Campus. [1.04]

T

  • Taiikukai-honbu(体育会本部 Keio Athletic Headquarters): Keio was early to adopt Western-style physical education, and asked Yoshiro Taniguchi to design this building to further expand the functionality of the Athletic Association. It was completed on the Mita Campus in 1952. The Athletic Association Headquarters had 14 rooms, including conference rooms, manager offices, and female members’ offices, as well as bathing facilities, kitchenette, and storage. (No longer extant) [1.07]
  • TANIGUCHI, Yoshiro(谷口吉郎): (1904-1979) A modern architect emblematic of the Showa period. Modern architecture flourished worldwide in the 1930s, and Taniguchi was early to introduce it to Japan. At Keio, he designed the Yochisha, Keio University Hiyoshi Dormitories, and many other buildings. His works are characterized by their faithfulness to the original impulse of modernist architecture. After the war, he was entrusted with reconstructing the war-devastated Mita Campus, and he designed many of its buildings. He created a sense of unity on the campus by incorporating, as an accent, the sash windows of the Enzetsu-kan which represent the tradition of Keio, into a simple modern architecture based on straight lines. [1.04][1.05][1.06][1.07][1.08]1.1[1.11][1.12][1.13][2.11][2.12][2.18]
  • Terra cotta: Ceramic made by firing clay, used for sculpture and architecture. The name “terra cotta” is derived from Italian. It means “baked earth.” It is a material that has been used for sculpture since ancient times, but a wider range of preparation techniques were developed in Italy during the Renaissance. Originally the main technique was unglazed baking, but other approaches are also seen such as painting or glazing. Terra cotta is also frequently used in architecture as a decorative material. [1.06]
  • The National Research Institute of Industrial Arts(工芸指導所): A national research and instruction institute created in 1928 by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to promote modernization and industrialization of industrial arts in Japan. It invited people like the architect Bruno Taut, and tried to introduce modern design to Japan while incorporating the latest trends from all over the world. At the same time, the institute worked to industrialize the traditional industrial arts. After the war, its main mission was research and instruction on industrial design, and it led industrial design in Japan until it was restructured in 1969. [1.06][2.05]
  • Third Faculty Building(第三研究室): Like the Second Faculty Building, this facility was designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi for the university’s faculty. In the year after the completion of the Second Faculty Building (1952), the Third Faculty Building was built adjacent to it on the east side. Originally the Third Faculty Building contained research offices of faculty in the humanities, research offices for archaeology, and other offices, and later it was used as a building for the graduate school. It shared a common design with the surrounding Second Faculty Building, Second School Building, and Third School Building, thus giving the campus a sense of unity. It was demolished in 1984 to make way for construction of the new Graduate School Building. [1.07]
  • Third School Building(第三校舎): A building built after the Second School Building to consolidate the environment of Keio as a new-system university starting from 1949. It had classrooms and a hall with capacity for 50 people. Yoshiro Taniguchi strived for a composite art environment interrelating architecture, the front court, and artworks, and thus placed Seinenzo by Kazuo Kikuchi in the center of the court. The building was acclaimed for its simple, modern design, and was awarded the Architectural Institute of Japan’s first AIJ Prize in 1949. In 1967, it was demolished to make way for construction of a Faculty Research Building. [1.07]
  • Tokyo Yokohama Dentetsu(東京横浜電鉄): One of the forerunner companies of today’s Tokyu Corporation. A railway company whose main trunk line was the Toyoko Line extending from Shibuya to Yokohama. The company focused on both railway operation and development along the line, including subdivision and sale of land, and establishment of the Tokyu Department Store. As part of that, the company donated land in Hiyoshidai to Keio in 1930 (land which is today part of the Hiyoshi Campus of Keio University) with the aim of making Hiyoshi into an educational district. [1.13]
  • Tsudayama(津田山): Name of a place in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture. When Noguchi came to Japan in 1950, this was the location of the National Research Institute of Industrial Arts. [1.06]
  • Tsushin-kyoikubu jimukyoku(通信教育部事務局): Correspondence course of university in Japan was instituted in 1947, and established at Keio in January 1948. The Correspondence Course Department was a building designed by Yoshiro Taniguchi, and completed in 1949 on the Mita Campus. It contained offices and conference rooms. (No longer extant) [1.07]

U

  • Ueno(上野): Name of a place in Tokyo, Japan. In the Edo period, Kan’ei-ji temple of the Tendai sect was built here to protect Edo Castle from the northeast direction, which was superstitiously regarded as unlucky. The expansive temple grounds were burned in the Battle of Ueno during the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate. A large portion became Ueno Park, and at present, it is a cultural district with many museums, a zoo, and other cultural landmarks. [1.06]
  • USAMI, Keiji(宇佐美圭司): (1940-2012) Painter. After graduating from high school, Usami came to Tokyo from Osaka, aspiring to be a painter. He took the examination for the Tokyo University of the Arts, but failed, so he began studying and painting on his own. His first one-man show was held in 1963 at the Minami Gallery. He was subsequently active as one of Japan’s leading painters—in roles such as Japan’s representative at the Biennale de Paris, art director of the Steel Pavilion at Expo ‘70 in Osaka, and Japan’s representative at the Venice Biennale. He also mentored younger artists as a professor at Musashino Art University and Kyoto City University of Arts. [1.03]

V

  • Varnish: A coating in which resin is dissolved in a solvent. It forms a transparent, hard film, and thus is used to protect the surface of materials. [2.04]

W

  • Wadatsumizo(わだつみ像): Shin Hongo, 1950, Bronze This work was produced in 1950 based on a commission by the Memorial Society for the Soldiers Killed in the war (Wadatsumikai). An equisse (study) was donated by a Keio alumnus and installed on the first basement level of the Keio University Library. This is one of the sculptural works adorning the Mita Campus—along with Asakura’s Heiwa Kitaru and Kikuchi’s Seinenzo—and of these three statues, this has the most vibrant energy. It expresses the healthy bodies of the young people who will carry the post-war period forward. [1.04]
  • Wakai hito (若い人 Young Person): Isamu Noguchi, 1950, Cast iron plate In 1944, Isamu Noguchi began working on slab sculptures which structure space by combining parts made from slabs of marble, iron, and other materials. This work is part of that series, and features a surrealistic, abstract expression. Although Noguchi chose a title similar to Kazuo Kikuchi’s Seinenzo (Youth), he used the technique of abstraction, and fully expressed the form of a vibrant student of the future learning on the Mita hilltop using rhythmically arranged curves. [1.04]

X

Y

  • Yagate Subete ga Hitotsu no En no Naka ni No.1 (やがてすべてが一つの円の中に No.1 “Eventually They All Come into a Circle No.1”) :
    Keiji Usami, 1982, Oil and canvas, in the Keio University Library This work was created at the request of the architect Fumihiko Maki for installation at the entrance of the Keio University Library. With a height of 2.4 meters and width of 7 meters, it is a horizontally-long large image whose predominant colors are yellow and blue, and within the picture, four schematized human forms—important pictoral elements in the works of Usami—are repeated and evolved. Restored in 2004 and 2019. [2.01]
  • Yochisya(幼稚舎): The first building Yoshiro Taniguchi designed at Keio. A school building for the Keio Yochisha (elementary school) completed in 1937. It was equipped with the latest facilities at the time, such as floor heating and terraces, and this bright, open school building with good flow of outside air is still used today. A unique feature is that there is no platform where teachers look down on students. [1.04][1.07]

Z

  • Zelkova: In Japan, lumber made from zelkova has been used in various buildings since ancient times as a high-grade wood. [2.04][2.05]
© Keio University
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Invitation to Ex-Noguchi Room: Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties in Universities

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