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Ground-Breaking Discoveries of the 20th Century

1953, Watson, Crick ,Wilkins, and Franklin discovered DNA structure and won the Nobel Prize in 1962 The reason I put an asterisk there on Franklin because she did not really win the Nobel Prize. Because she died at an early age 30-plus years young. And the Nobel tradition did not reward or award Nobel Prize to the dead. so I used this story to tell our fellow student, that you ought to work hard in your younger years. So that you will definitely live to received the Nobel Prize.
In 1969, Thomas Brock discovered heat-stable enzymes in a bacteria called thermophilic bacteria or Thermus Aquaticus, which is later used for or in the PCR technologies In fact, it’s called tech enzyme because of the name of the bacteria thermus aquaticus. 1970, first restriction enzyme endonuclease was isolated by these three people, Nathans, Arber and Smith. And they also share a Nobel Prize in 1978. In 1971, Cetus, the first biotech company was founded in Emeryville, California. In 1973, Cohen and Boyer developed the cut-and-paste genetic engineering technique, using the restricted enzymes. And that began the new era of recombinant DNA technology. 1975, the first production of monoclonal antibody was developed by Kohler and Milstein. And they also share a Nobel Prize in 1984.

A series of illuminating scientific discoveries were made in the mid- to late 20th century, including DNA structure, thermos-stable enzyme, endonuclease, r-DNA and monoclonal antibody. Recombinant DNA and monoclonal antibody form the two pillars of modern biotechnology, contributing immensely to human health and wealth.

The identification of DNA structure by Watson, Crick and William, who shared the Nobel Prize in 1962 is probably the most significant scientific discovery of the 20th century. To follow that was the isolation of the first restriction enzyme, endonuclease in 1970, and eventually the “cut and paste” recombinant DNA technology in 1973. Finally, the hybridoma technology for the production of monoclonal antibody was established in 1975.

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