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Course Overview

Hello, Learners! Whether you’re learning online for the first time, or you’re new to FutureLearn, the following tips will help you get the most out of your course. Welcome to …

Mixed Views on US Biosimilar Market

Please take some time to review this article: Mixed views on US biosimilar market Much was expected of biosimilars and their potential to cut the price of originator with savings …

Role, Challenge and Opportunity

As a consultant to the physician, an advocate for the patient and an advisor to the health policy authority, pharmacists should be aware of the available biologic products and reassure …

Tissue Necrosis Factor and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays important roles in diverse cellular functions such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and death. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF is …

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

When HIV infects a cell, reverse transcriptase copies the viral single-stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded viral DNA. The viral DNA is then integrated into the host chromosomal DNA, which …

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind …

Interleukins

Interleukins are a subset of a larger group of cellular messenger molecules called cytokines, which modulates various cellular functions. Interleukins are not stored within cells but are secreted rapidly and …

Interferons

Interferons are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells as a defensive response to virus infection. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons …

Erythropoietin and Grow Hormone

Two categories of biologic products are covered in this session Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys. It plays a key role in the production of red …

Antisense Oligonucleotides and colony Stimulating Factors

Antisense oligonucleotides are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that interact with messenger RNA to prevent translation of a target gene. In addition to its unlimited potential for therapeutic applications, antisense technology …

Anti-coagulant

Antocoagulants work via different mechanisms, thrombolytic, antiplatelet or plasminogen activator r-hirudin and drotrecogin are both direct thrombin inhibitors. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in the breakdown of blood clots. …