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The Immune System

And here the slide shows the cells of the immune system. The stem cells differentiate into lymphocyte and granulocyte. Lymphocyte further differentiate into B-cell, T-cell, and the natural killer cells. The granulocyte differentiate into Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, and Macrophage Again, all together they form a very strong defense immune system for us. B lymphocyte, b-cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. They are produced and the mature in the bone marrow and that’s why the B is derived from. B is for bone marrow. Upon challenge, the differentiate into plasma cells which would produce or secrete soluble antibody. Some B-cells develop into memory cells after activation by antigen interaction.
So here you see, the Naive B-cells, some of them after challenge will differentiate into plasma cells. And they secrete antibodies. Some of them upon interaction with the antigen or the virus will become memory B cells that are specific for that antigen or for that virus. T lymphocyte. T lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus. And that’s where the T comes from. T is for thymus. And there are similar types of T lymphocyte. The T helper cell, T suppressor cell, Cytotoxic cell, and natural killer cells.
Type of T cells, helper cells, T-helper cells. They help with other white blood cells in the immunological process. And that’s why they are called helper cells. They also express CD4 proteins on the surface and that’s why they are also known as CD4+ T-cells. Suppressor T cells they are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Remember we want immunity but on the other hand, we don’t want our immune systems to be overly expressed. So suppressor T cells serve as a counterbalance. Cytotoxic T cells, by the terminology, they are toxic to infected cells and to the tumor cells. Because they express CD8 proteins on the surface and that’s why they are also called CD8+ T cells.
Memory T cells, just like memory B-cells, they are a subset of antigen T cells that persist long after an infection is resolved.
Natural killer cells. Natural killer cells recognize antigens expressed as glycolipid. It’s called CD1d glycolipid.
Natural killer T cells are different from natural killer cells, the former is adaptive the latter, the natural killer cells is innate.

The immune system is a host defense network comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. There are two types of immunogenicity in therapeutic biologics development process: wanted immunogenicity and unwanted immunogenicity. Immunogenicity is a clinically critical criterion when selecting a biologic.

The immune system is briefly summarized. The cells of the immune system can be categorized as lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells, and NK cells), neutrophils, and monocytes/macrophages. T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive immune response. T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity. T cells originate from bone marrow and mature in the thymus, comprising helper T cells, suppressor T cells, Cytotoxic T cells, Memory T cells, and Natural Killer T cells

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