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Monoclonal Antibodies


Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope, the part of an antigen that is recognized by the antibody. Because of the antigenic specificity, they can be used for targeted therapy, attacking selective types of cells (e.g., cancer cells) with less harm to normal cells. The naming convention for therapeutic mAbs: the suffix for all mAbs is “mab.”, The infixes designate the target (eg, “ci” for cardiovascular, “so” for bone, “tu” for tumor) and the source (host) in which the antibody was originally produced (eg, “u” for human, “o” for mouse), as well as modifications (eg, “-xi-“ for chimeric, “-zu-“ for humanized).

mAbs are directed against a large number of antigens and used for immunologic diseases, cancer therapy and reversal of drug effects. For example, both Basiliximab and Daclizumab are IL-2 receptor antagonists pharmacologically, but they are made in mAbs for prophylaxis of organ rejection after renal transplant mAb can be used singularly. For example, Rituximab (anti-CD20) was the first approved (1997) MAb to treat non-Hodgkins lymphoma; Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) was the second approved (1998) MAb to treat breast cancer. mAb can be used in combined chemotherapy. For example, Gemtuzumab (anti-CD33) is linked to a chemotherapeutic agent, calicheamicin for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). mAb can be used in combined radiation therapy. For example, Ibritumomab (anti- CD20) is attached to a radioactive isotope (yttrium-90 or indium-111). Market growth of global biosimilar MAbs continues amid increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and increase in expiring patents of blockbuster mAbs, and is poised to grow by $ 8.65 bn during 2020-2024.

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