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Project Context

Projects enable people to work in many different organisations, within many different contexts around the world. This means that the preconditions can vary a lot between different projects and consequently how projects are managed.
Three peopling standing on a cliff, using a rope to help a fourth person climb up. In the background there is a beautiful sunset over the ocean.
© Luleå University of Technology

Projects enable people to work in many different organisations, within many different contexts around the world. This means that the preconditions can vary a lot between different projects and consequently how projects are managed.

Time-Critical Projects

Launching a satellite into space is a very challenging and advanced project, with a high degree of complexity, regarding both technology and organisational aspects. These conditions result in a long-term project (can be a period of 10 years or more) and high complexity of scope due to the many different factors involved. This kind of project is also time-critical, since launching a satellite into space many times needs to factor the gravitational influences of the different planets, to calculate speed and trajectory. Hence, the satellite can only be launched in a particular window of time due to the constellation of planets.

In a similar way as the Satellite project, planning and managing an Olympic game inauguration is a complex, long-term and time-critical project. This kind of project is usually initiated many years before the inauguration and with high complexity due to the extensive scope (including many different facilities and a comprehensive organisation). The date for the inauguration is decided more than ten years in advance and cannot be changed, i.e. time-critical.

Organisational Change Projects

An organisational change project can imply the implementation of a new business system and/or new working processes in an organization. Usually the client has an overall idea of the aim with such a projects, meaning it becomes goal-seeking and of explorative character and hence also complex to plan and manage. A reason for this is the difficulty of gauging the consequence of making changes in advance. This is especially the case for larger organisations.

Extreme Projects

Climbing a high mountain (for example above 8000 meters) is a challenging and extreme project. This is also very much a goal-oriented project, where the goal is to reach the summit (however, the goal can be more specified, more about that later). A mountain climbing project involves high levels of risks, where careful planning and re-planning is crucial.

A mountain with several different, winding paths to the summit.

Construction Projects

A construction project can imply high complexity (for example building a skyscraper) or of routine character (for example a family house). In both cases, it is a goal-oriented project where the goal is clear and in the form of drawings and specifications. Managing such a project usually implies a focus to maintain cost and time constraints.

A construction site where a building is in progress of being built

© Luleå University of Technology
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Plan for Project Success: Project Planning and Management:

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