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Models of training design: instructional design system (IDS)

Instructional System Design (IDS)
© Coventry University. CC BY-NC 4.0

The instructional design system (IDS) aids in the design, development and delivery of training programmes.

It is a relatively straightforward system comprising five key phases of training programme development, known as the ADDIE:

  • Analyse
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation and control

Branson et al. (1975) suggest that a comprehensive training programme can be developed by following these steps. The image below provides an overview of the five phases and tasks that should be conducted in each to ensure an effective training programme.

An overview of the five phases, which are analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation and control. The analysis phase consists of analysing the job, selecting task functions, constructing job performance measures, analysing existing courses, and selecting instructional settings. The design phase consists of developing objectives, developing tests, describing entry behaviour, and determining sequences and structure. The third phase, which is the development phase, consists of specifying learning events activities, specifying the instructional management plan and delivery system, reviewing and selecting existing materials, developing instruction, and validating instruction. Phase four, which is implementation, consists of implementing the instructional management plan, and conducting instruction. Phase five consists of conducting internal evaluation, conducting external evaluation and revising the system. Click to enlarge image

There are several characteristics that should be present in IDS (Gustafson and Branch 2002):

Learner-centred The learner should be the focus point of all instruction
Goal-oriented Well-defined project goals reflecting the client’s expectations are established in the IDS process
Focuses on real-world performance Prepares learners to perform the behaviour that will be expected of them in the real world
Outcomes can be measured Assessment instruments should be valid and reliable
Empirical Data is at the heart of the IDS process; collection begins during the initial analysis and continues through to implementation
Team effort Usually involves a team effort because of their size, scope and technical complexity requiring a variety of individual skills


Branson, R. K., Rayner, G. T., Cox, J. L., Furman, J. P., King, F. J., and Hannum, W. H. (1975) Interservice Procedures for Instructional Design Systems Development: Executive Summary and Model. Tallahassee, FL: Centre for Educational Technology

Gustafson, K. L. (2002) ‘The Future of instructional design’. in Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. ed. by Reiser, R. A. and Dempsey, J. A. New Jersey: Merrill

© Coventry University. CC BY-NC 4.0
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